SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 113 , Issue 2
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Akifumi KANDA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 135-165
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    To date, the research on the history of the political parties around the time when the "Yokusan Seiji翼賛政治" System was established regards them as a group removed from mainstream of politics. However, we must not neglect the political party statesmen who positively participated in the forming of the "Yokusan Seiji" System. By focusing on the ideas of Yamazaki Tatsunosuke 山崎達之輔 about the political system, the author analyses the relation between the forming of the "Yokusan Seiji" System and those statesmen, and concludes the following. After the "Kensei Jodo憲政常道" collapsed, Yamazaki proposed "Totalitarianism" which denied competition among political parties as a factor that confused party government. Based on this understanding, in the Konoe Shinto近衛新党 movement and the Shintaisei 新体制 movement, he planned the formation of a new party, that aimed to participate in policy-making in advance and to unite the political powers which had become divided under the Meiji Constitution. This plan was instituted by crossing administration and legislation in the Yokusan Seijikai翼賛政治会's policy research council. In order that the new party would have this function, Yamazaki utilized the logic that public opinion was reflected in the platform of political party. Because party statesmen had been criticized for political competition and scandal, they needed a reliable way to justify that logic. In this context, the Yokusan election held in the form that the whole nation recommend their candidates created the fiction that the party statesmen and parliament had regained the confidence of the nation. That is to say, behind the fact that party statesmen positively participated in the forming of the "Yokusan Seiji" System, that system had the possibility of stabilizing the political order under the Meiji Consti-tution. It is important that an analogy between pre- and postwar politics can be recognized in the policy-making of the Yokusan Seijikai and that of the Liberal Democratic Party. This means that Japanese politics retained its base of the decision-making from the prewar to the postwar period. The author is of the opinion that the opportunity for political parties to make contact with administration was expanded in the situation of administration expansion or modernization in the pre- and postwar periods.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 165-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Kesao IHARA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 166-189
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Uketorijo 請取状, or hensho 返抄, have been understood heretofore solely as documents that simply functioned much like present day receipts ; and a more technical analysis of them has yet to be done. In this article, the author discusses the function of these documents in medieval Japan, in order to clarify the process of their formation and show that concepts of giving and receiving at the time were very much different from our ideas today. First, the author confirms that contrary to commonly-held views, medieval uketorijo functioned in the area of debt, much like documents of entrustment or loan certificates, due to a weak perception of private ownership, leading to the use of uketorijo in the receipt of goods, no matter who owned them. Secondly, the author confirms the historical fact the hensho functioned not only as receipts, but also as proof of delivery or transport (okuribumi 送文) ; and the term "osamu" meant both to present (deliver) and to receive (accept). These ideas gave the relationships of giving and receiving and lending and borrowing a very different aspect than in contemporary times. There is also the fact of people using uketorijo as loan certificates to avoid the application of acts of debt forgiveness. Thirdly, these relationships surrounding the ambiguous idea of "osamu" was not only a medieval phenomenon, but rather date back to ancient times. Uketori in the narrow sense of the word means the temporary acceptance of goods that have been delivered, their conversion to other goods of equal value, the determination of the value received, and the application of a signature. Here the element of calculation is present. This aspect developed from uketorijo that first appeared among ukenobumi 請納文 receipts dated the third year of Hogen (1158). Overall, the author concludes that there is a need to reexamine relationships regarding giving and receiving and concluding contracts in medieval Japan from the perspective of debt-credit relationships.
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  • Ken TOBE
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 190-213
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article discusses China's universal education in early Republican China, focusing on the Association for Popular Education 通俗教育会. At the time, many educators thought that the development of universal education would advance social reform, which would improve the nation. Because the weak central government was incapable of setting up an effective universal education system, many associations were established by local elite to promote universal education in local areas. For example, the Tianjin Social Education Office 天津社会教育辧事処 (TSEO) was established by the local people. By collecting contributions from intellectuals and merchants that interested in education, TSEO was active from 1915 to 1928 and realized many programs. Those activities included not only education (e. s., lectures, education for poor people in outdoor schools, publication of education magazines, organizing boy scout troops and the construetion of libraries and museums) but also social work (economic assistance to outdoor schools and to the unemployed). TSEO also reconstructed Confucian shrines and revived old Confucian customs, because its members believed that Confucian ideals could advance social morality. Therefore, the posture of TSEO was criticized by the New Culture Movement. It was due to contributions from many people supporting TSEO's ideals that it could become involved in so many kinds of activities. Because the aim of universal education was social evolution of China, the members of the associations for popular education basically did not resist the cultural reformation of the May Fourth period. That is to say, they did have their own view ofsocial evolution and their activities were very influential in the area of social education under the Nanjing regime from 1928 on.
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  • Masanao KANO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 214-222
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Yoshihiko TAKENAKA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 222-231
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 231-240
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 240-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (52K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 241-242
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (215K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 242-243
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (267K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 243-244
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 244-245
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (270K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 245-246
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (264K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 246-247
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (254K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 247-248
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 248-249
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 266-250
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages 270-267
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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