SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 113 , Issue 7
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages Cover1-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages Cover2-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Minoru OZAWA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1187-1222
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    The aim of this article is to reconsider the reign of Eric the Victorious, the king of the Svear at the last phase of the 10th century. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, historical studies concerning Eric have concentrated on two events, the battle of Fyrisvallarna and his conquest of Denmark. However, historiogra-phical problems existing in the main source materials, especially some Icelandic King's Sagas and the History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, have confused historians and caused less interest in the deeper inquiry into the Eric's reign. However, there is no doubt about the two events through testimonies of the other sources : i.e. runic inscriptions, skaldic poetry, diplomas, annales, and chronicles. As a result, we can assume that Eric won Styrbjorn, who was suppbrted by Danish king Harald Bleutooth, conquered Denmark, expelled Swein Forkbeard, and reigned over Denmark for some time. Eric also had some contact with Christianity there. If so, why did Eric conquer and reign over Denmark? Two reasons are presented here. One is political disorder in the Danish kingdom from the reign of Harald Bleutooth to that of Swein Forkbeard. The other is the transformation of the political structure around the Baltic in which Ottonian Germany and an emerging Poland played the main roles. While confrontation between Denmark and other political, entities increased, Eric strengthened his political power through his marriage to a daughter of the Duke of Poland. The article concludes that the reign of Eric found a threshold for the history of Sweden due to the reestablishment of Svear kingship, his entry into Baltic politics, and the introduction of Christianity.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1222-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Hidemi HIGUCHI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1223-1258
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    The research to date dealing with the assassination of Yang Yuting by order of Zhang Xueliang on 10 January 1929 focuses on the belief that Yang was pro-Japanese. What the research fails to consider, however, is the assassination of Chang Yinhuai on that same date, which pan by no means be attributed to pro-Japanese sentiment, since Chang never studied in Japan, which is the only proof offered for Yang's pro-Japanese position. Could these assassinations have had some other motive? The author of this article believes so, based on two points yet to be considered in the existing research. The first has to do with the public careers and political ideas of the two victims. Studies have clearly shown the political ideas and actions of Zhang Xueliang from the time of the bombing death of Zhang Zuolin at the hands of a Japanese agent on 4 June 1928 to the hoisting of the Nationalist flag on 29 December of that year ; however, a similar analysis of Zhang's activities during that time has yet to be done, due to the a priori assumption that Zhang and Yang were political enemies. Consequently, we have no idea of Yang's policy stances or how they conflicted with Zhang's, other than the former's alleged pro-Japanese sentiment, leading to the conclusion that Yang's assassination was motivated by personal conflict between the two. This is why the author of the present article has felt the need to delve into the political ideas and actions of Yang and Chang Yinhuai. The author's second point focuses on the power structure of the Sandongxing 東三省 Regime and the political roles played in it by Zhang, Yang and Chang. Whenever conflict occurs in any political regime, clashes usually occur between factions, not individual politicians. In the case of the Sandongxing Regime, conflict not only occurred along generational lines (between the old timer and newcomer factions), but also geographically between the leading province in the triad, Fengtian, and the other two, Jilin and Heilongjiang. What remains unclear is where Zhang, Yang and Chang stood within the Regime's structure of conflict, which may be the key, to why the latter two were assassinated. One more factor that must be taken into consideration is the situation of the three countries bordering on the Sandongxing region : China, the Soviet Union and Japan. The research to date has tended to emphasize the actions of Japan in the framework of the historical background to its relationship to Manchuria. However, even if it can be proved that Yang was pro-Japanese, it is still important to identify his place in the Regime's structure and the Regime's relationship to its other two neighbors. Also, within the fluid international situation at that time, the Regime's structure was probably also in flux, one good example of which being Yang's assassination. With respect to China, it was being ruled by two central bodies, the government in Beijing ruling over Changcheng 長城 and all points south and the Nationalist government. However, these bodies did not exercise full control over the country in the same manner as the former Qing Dynasty or the later People's Republic. This is why the author deals with the "China factor" focussing not only on the two central ruling bodies, but also the, movements of the various warlord factions.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1258-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Sadao ITO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1259-1261
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Takayuki KUMAGAI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1262-1284
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present article is an attempt to open a new line of discussion about the Kamakura Bakufu's functionary in Kyoto, the Rokuhara Tandai 六波羅探題, beginning with an examination of the term itself and a clarification of the context in which the position was placed.The term "tandai" indicated the highest ranking jurist in Kamakura, Rokuhara and Hakata ; however, it was by no means widely used during the period. At the time, the Kyoto functionary's post was described using such terms as shugo 守護 (protector, military governor) and kanrei 管領 (overseer, administrator). It was only during the Edo period that we find the term "Rokuhara Tandai" in a reference work entitled Buke Myomoku-Sho 武家名目抄 compiled by Hanawa Hokiichi 塙保己一. Given the above facts, the history of the Rokuhara Tandai may be laid out as follows. The post of "Rokuhara Tandai" was established in 1221 as the shugo of Kyoto, the imperial capital. Later, as the actual administrative structure of the office was set up, its executive officer came to occupy the position of kanrei. It was the judicial aspect of this administration that the Rokuhara functionary took on role of a tandai. Furthermore, the research to date has considered Rokuhara as a place secondary to the shogun's main residence in Kamakura. However, there is plenty of room for considering Rokuhara as the shogun's main or original residence. For example, the Lord of Kamakura (kamakura-dono 鎌倉殿) was originally dispatched by the emperor from Kyoto to Kamakura in the capacity of Shogun (seiitaishogun 征夷大将軍), and during the Kamakura period the term "buke" 武家 (the shogun and his entourage) referred geographically to Rokuhara, not Kamakura, thus making it impossible to consider "Rokuhara Tandai" on the same level as "Chinzei Tandai 鎮西探題, the Bakufu-appointed functionary in Hakata. During the late Kamakura period, when the Bakufu's control over western Japan became part of the pluralistic system of elites, including the aristocracy and religious institutions (kenmontaisei 権門体制), it was Rokuhara that represented the Bakufu in that system. In this sense, one could very well argue that Rokuhara existed as the headquarters of the Bakufu. The possibilities offered by the above discussion rest for the most part on the place and influence that Buke Myomoku-Sho has and will have in the historical study of the Kamakura period.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1284-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Jun'ichi ENOMOTO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1285-1295
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Eiichi MOTONO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1295-1302
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1302-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (46K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1303-1304
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (237K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1304-1305
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (253K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1305-1306
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (259K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1306-1307
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (262K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1307-1308
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (269K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1309-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (139K)
  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1334-1310
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (1516K)
  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages 1338-1335
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (246K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages App1-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages App2-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages App3-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 7 Pages Cover3-
    Published: July 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
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