SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 118 , Issue 4
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Yoko NISHIMURA
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 513-550
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article examines every aspect of the history of ninth and tenth century northern China based on the recently discovered Zhimo 支謨 Epitaph. During the ninth and tenth centuries, the region of Daibei 代北 (the northern part of what is now Shanxi 山西 province) was politically, militarily and commercially one of the most important regions throughout eastern Eurasia. It was the center of a military clique during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, and during that time, was the staging ground for repeated campaigns of advancing nomadic tribes. It is no exaggeration that the history of ninth and tenth century Daibei determined the China's historical development during the centuries that followed. Therefore, the task of decoding the Zhimo Epitaph and clarifying the movements of the nomadic powers of Daibei during the last decades of the Tang Dynasty will enable a more systematic understanding of those events occurring in ninth and tenth century northern China that would deeply influence the historical development of East Asia in the centuries to come. The author begins by transcribing the rubbed copy version Zhimo Epitaph into a text, in order to discuss 1) how the Shatuo 沙陀 Turks intended to seize the economic foundations of the Tang Dynasty from the very beginning of their territorial expansion during its last years, 2) how the historiography concerning that expansion was altered considerably as it was transmitted through the regimes formed by the Shatuo Turks during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, by comparing the Zhimo Epitaph with other extant sources, and 3) the concrete image of the upheaval staged by the Shatuo Turks at the end of the Tang period and how that upheaval influenced the history of East Asia during the following centuries. Therefore, due to the excavation of the Zhimo Epitaph, it has become possible to gain new perspectives on the formation of the Five Kingdoms.
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  • Akira MORI
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 551-575
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    It is well known, that for a period of the fourth and third centuries B.C. Rome annexed some cities in central Italy by giving not civitas optimo iure, but civitas sine suffragio, and in the annalistic tradition we find in fact a couple of cases of such annexations after the Latin War (340 to 338 B.C.). However as to the origin of civitas sine suffragio scholars of Roman history are notoriously divided. Some critics for example suppose that the Etruscan city Caere was the first community which Rome annexed in such a way, while others will deny it. It is also disputed that civitas sine suffragio was from the beginning a form of annexation and it is often argued that this concept changed during its history. There is even a hypothesis that the civitas sine suffragio was originally a sort of honorary citizenship and could be given individually. This essay clarifies and examines the dispersed historical material and the results of former studies concernig the origin of civitas sine suffragio and its history, and concludes that Caere was not the first city to have been annexed by civitas sine suffragio, and that the idea of depriving the citizenship of suffrage developed from the necessity to annex Capua and some other cities in Northern Campania. After the Latin War Rome took an increasingly deeper interest in this area because of its fertility and the threat from the neighboring Samnites. Therefore immediately after the settlement of a colonia at Cales, the Romans decided to annex Capua and some other Campanian cities, though they tolerated a large scale of self-government amongst the inhabitants of the annexed area. In addition to a relatively great distance from Rome, linguistic and customary differences may have urged the Romans to work out a new form of annexation. That is to say, civitas sine suffragio was created by the Romans in order to annex some Oscan cities in Northern Campania and its bestowal was from the beginning a form of annexation by Rome.
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  • Kazusa HIRAI
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 576-589
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    This article attempts a textual criticism of the Chosokabe Motochika Shikimoku (hereafter Keicho Shikimoku) purported to have been promulgated in Tosa Province during the Toyotomi Hideyoshi regime in the second year of Keicho (1597). The article begins with a comparison between Chosokabe family institutions and the content of the Keicho Shikimoku, by focusing on a set of provincial-wide bylaws (Chosokabe-shi Okitegaki) promulgated during that same time. The comparison reveals marked differences between the two documents in both wording and institutional arrangements. The author concludes that the content of the Keicho Shikimoku conflicts with Chosokabe family custom in many ways. Next, a comparison is made between the Keicho Shikimoku and the legal codes promulgated by the Yamauchi family for it Tosa Han fief during the Tokugawa Period, revealing similarities between the two documents in both content and form. The author concludes that the so-called "Keicho Shikimoku" was not a legal code of the Chosokabes, but must have been compiled after the formation of Tosa Han sometime during the 17^<th> century or after. In order to pinpoint the date of compilation, the author compares the Keicho Shikimoku with revisions made in the Tosa Han legal codes between Kan'ei 18 (1641) and Genroku 3 (1690), and discovers that the greatest similarity occurs with respect to the revisions made in Kanbun 3 (1663). Moreover, the fact that the Keicho Shikimoku prohibition on samurai attending dance performances and sumo wrestling tournaments reflects the actual situation during the several years following Kanbun 3 also suggests that the 1663 legal code for Tosa Han was its source. As to the reason why the Keicho Shikimoku was written, the author argues that it was an attempt by local samurai facing extinction in the midst of the political upheaval that occurred in Tosa during Kanbun 3 to reinforce their legitimacy by emphasizing historical ties to the Chosokabe family. The author concludes that the Keicho Shikimoku was a fictitious legal code modeled after legal codes in force in Tosa Han during the late 17^<th> century and shows that the Chosokabe family did not use the phrase "ichiryo gusoku" 一領具足 (allowing cultivators to arm themselves; later how local samurai-cultivators referred to themselves) in any of the legal codes it promulgated or any official document it issued, indicating that ichiryo gusoku was merely a popular phrase, not an official legal institution.
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  • Ryosuke MAEDA
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 589-614
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    After the inauguration of the Imperial Diet in 1890, the Meiji State, the oligarchic Government called hanbatsu 藩閥, needed to reorganize itself in its relationship with the popular parties, which were seriously attacking the hanbatsu in order to retrench administrative expenditure. In this situation, the Hokkaido Reform was one of the most symbolic issues of the hanbatsu's self-reformation, because there had been the image of administrative waste in Hokkaido which was ruled by Kuroda Kiyotaka 黒田清隆, the leader of the Satsuma clan 薩派, who had long resisted the Diet System. In May 1891, the Matsukata Masayoshi 松方正義 Cabinet was set up and tried to overcome the problem of these maladies, which was a weakness of the hanbatsu Government. His "expansionist policies" 積極主義, including the Hokkaido Reform, were epochmaking in that the oligarchs could face the parties by using the excess revenue left over from the first Diet session for the manifestation more attractive than the parties', although that surely meant great damage for the Satsuma clan. The Hokkaido Reform by the Matsukata Cabinet progressed in two phases: staff reform and administration reform, both meant to protect Hokkaido from the parties' advance. First, at the initiative of the Minister of Interior Affairs Shinagawa Yajiro 品川弥二郎, large-scale personnel reduction, including the Director General of Hokkaido Government of the Satsuma clan, was carried out before the second session of the Diet. While Shinagawa and the new Director General Watanabe Chiaki 渡辺千秋 failed to reform Hokkaido sufficiently, the popular parties still attacked the Government through the Hokkaido problem. As the second reform, Shinagawa and Watanabe gradually planned to vest great authority in the Director General and the Hokkaido Government, compelling the cabinet to make the latter independent from the Department of the Interior before the third session of the Diet. In spite of the agreement of Ito Hirobumi 伊藤博文, however, the administration reform project unfortunately collapsed with the resignation of the Matsukata Cabinet, in July 1892, activating political conflict about the bargaining chip of Hokkaido. But, throughout this process, the Satsuma clan failed to mention their special interests in Hokkaido decisively. Instead, the popular parties, especially the Jiyuto 自由党, advanced on Hokkaido. This was in parallel with the Satsuma clan's fall in the Government and the parties' rise in the central political situation. In the face of Diet System, the oligarchs' monopoly of power in the Hokkaido was denied, and the fundamental political restructuring, namely the hanbatsu's self-reorganization, occurred.
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  • Takahiro TESHIMA
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 615-624
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Kanji ISHII
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 624-630
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Hideaki SUZUKI
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 630-640
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 641-642
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 642-643
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (268K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 643-644
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (201K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 690-686
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages 685-645
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages App2-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages App3-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
  • Type: Cover
    2009 Volume 118 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 2009
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
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