SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 119 , Issue 4
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Yusuke KONDO
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 445-478
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Within the very fruitful research done to date on the history of the establishment of Shogo-in 聖護院 Temple as the head-quarters for the main sect of Japanese mountain asceticism (shugendo 修験道), there has been a strong tendency to emphasize the escalation and expansion of efforts on the part of the abbot (monzeki 門跡) of Shogo-in during the 14^<th> century to recruit and organize ascetics (yamabushi 山伏) active on the local level. However, the research has not sufficiently focused on the structural aspects of either the relationship between Shogo-in as manager of the Kumano Shrine (Kumano Sanzan 熊野三山) and Jojo-in 乗々院 Temple as functionary of the Shrine, or the relationship between the former and locally-based yamabushi. The present article looks into these two relationships in more detail through an investigation of the forms and functions of documents issued by the two temples. Concerning the documents, which were addressed to either the Kumano Shrine or local yamabushi, the author shows that 1) they can be divided into three types, 2) changes over time that occurred in them can be detected only in those addressed to local yamabushi, 3) a change in the form of the documents beginning in the 16^<th> century reflects a change in the function of Jojo-in as their author, and 4) the change in document form reflects a change in the rights and duties involved in the appointments which the documents pertained to. Turning to the role played by Jojo-in, up through the 15^<th> century, the recruitment and organization of yamabushi by the abbot of Shogo-in was conducted through the issuance of documents addressed to Kumano Shrine and local yamabushi authored by Jojo-in as the functionary of the Shrine, in regard to such matters as appointments to the position of instructor in the art of asceticism (sendatsu 先達) and the resolution of disputes related to that position. However, this structural organization would change during the 16^<th> century in the midst of economic hardship due the withdrawal of the proprietorships (ryo 領) that had been granted to Kumano Shrine and the abbot of Shogo-in, and the loss of Shogo-in's appointment as Shrine manager. Therefore, the abbot was forced to restrict and revise the authority wielded by Jojo-in, choosing to appoint the leaders of local groups of yamabushi as its functionaries alternating them on a yearly basis (nengyoji 年行事), and thus taking direct control of these groups, while securing a new source of revenue. This kind of structural transformation that took place during the 16^<th> century and began with the abbot of Shogo-in's need to find new sources of income, resulted in a substantive change in organization from one revolving around a Jojo-in/Sendatsu axis to one revolving around a Shogo-in/Nengyoji axis, and, in the author's view, resulted in a new social context in which local yamabushi groups would practice asceticism.
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  • Koji KOKUBU
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 479-505
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Article 30 of the Meiji Constitution pertaining to petitions filed by imperial subjects specified that "rules" for concrete procedures were to be established; and the Parliament Act (Gi'inho 議院法) concerning petitions to the congress, and the Petitions Act (Seiganrei 請願令) pertaining to petitions filed with the Emperor and administrative bureaus were promulgated as a result. This article examines the process of promulgating the Petitions Act by discussing why the act was passed in 1917. in addition, the article discusses the new link that was established between the Emperor and his subjects (or rather, the nation) through the enactment of the petition system through an examination of the conditions before, during and after the enactment of the Constitution. Because the act of petitioning the Emperor was prohibited prior to the Constitution's enactment, focus was placed more on appeals to administrative bureaus at that time. However, in the process of enacting the Constitution and studying European practices, petitioning the Emperor came to be interpreted as being important as petitioning the legislature and administrative bureaus. After the Constitution was enacted, petitioning the Emperor became the subject of a debate between Ito Hirobumi (伊藤博文) and Ito Miyoji (伊東巳代治) within the process of preparing an imperial household system. The argument concerned how petitioning should be understood in terms of the "will of the people": Would it be a means of "procuring the will of the people" or "probing the will of the people?" Furthermore, heated debates arose on how the Emperor and the legislature should be positioned within the framework of the Constitution. For example, what would be the interrelationship between petitioning the two (i.e., expressing the "will of the people") and perceptions concerning the relationship between the monarch and his subjects. The promulgation of the Petitions Act was also interpreted as a measure responding to a changing society and as a law protecting the rights of imperial subjects. Consequently, the Petitions Act, which attempted to systematically lay out the petition process, was a piece of legislation that "probed the will of the people" and, as a matter, was the first law of its kind to do so under the Constitution. Furthermore, the Act represented a new linkage between the Emperor and the nation, through the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, who was put in charge of handling petitions filed with the Emperor.
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  • Tokuro TAKAGI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 506-513
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Shunsuke NAKAZAWA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 514-523
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Nobuo HARUNA
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 523-528
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Toshio SAKURAI
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 529-538
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 539-541
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 541-542
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 598-596
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 595-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 594-543
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages App2-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages App3-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Cover
    2010 Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 2010
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
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