SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 120 , Issue 3
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages Cover1-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages Cover2-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Takashi JOHHCI
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 293-327
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During the third month of the 30^<th> year (1551) of the Jiajing Era (1522-1556), the Ming government decided to offer a trade agreement to the Mongols led by 1tan Khan, which would set up markets (mashi 馬市) where Mongolian horses would be traded for valuable Chinese commodities. This paper explores the political history of the late phase of the Era through an analysis of the decisionmaking process leading up to the Ming government recognizing trade with Altan Khan, while continuing to refuse a long-standing demand to grant the Mongols tributary status. The research to date on the political situation at the time understands it as a period of political stagnation attributed to Emperor Shizong's withdrawal from governmental affairs and incompetence on the part of Yan Song, senior officer of the Grand Secretariat. Moreover, recent attempts to reexamine the situation have still not been able to produce a complete picture of what exactly was happening on the contemporary political scene in concrete terms. The opportunity to offer the trade agreement was furnished ironically by Shizong's increasing desire to conduct a military campaign against Altan Khan. During the eighth month of 1550, after Altan's army had surrounded Beijing (the so-called Gengxuzhibian 庚戌之変) in protest of being refused tributary status, Shizong ordered that plans be drawn up for a punitive expedition against the Mongols. Although such a campaign was clearly unrealistic, Yan Song, other central bureaucrats, and the supreme commander and grand coordinator of the northern region went through the motions out of respect to Shizong's will, but in reality took every action possible to avoid such a campaign. While respect was shown for Shizong's refutation of tribute relations with the Mongols as an attitude consistent with the ideology supporting the traditional Chinese world order, attempts to satisfy the Mongols' material demands by means other than "tributary trade" and thus pacify the unrest threatening China's borders gave birth to the idea of a mashi trade arrangement. The idea caused virulent opposition from government officials outraged by such a display of impudence towards the will of the emperor, but as the debate raged on, the proponents after several attempts finally persuaded Shizong, and a decision was reached to set up the mashi trade. However, due to such factors as Shizong's obstinate attitude and the fiscal situation on the ground, it became impossible to generate a scale of trade sufficient to satisfy Mongol demand, leading to an escalation of Mongol attacks. Consequently, after it became apparent that the hopes of Yan Song and his cohorts were unattainable, the mashi trade agreement was ended in the ninth month of 1522. From his investigation of this turn of events, the author concludes that the political history of the Jiajing Era should be placed in the context of a group of policy makers confronted with an emperor's stubborn espousal ideals in no way reflecting reality and thus trying to bring the situation into a soft landing by navigating for areas of compromise linking political ideals with present reality.
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  • Masashi HIROSUE
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 328-330
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Daisuke IGARASHI
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 331-357
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Islamic law provides for the waqf (Islamic endowment) as a virtuous legal instrument that will bring the endower "closer to the God (qurba)." However, the popularity of the waqf system throughout the premodern Islamic world cannot be attributed simply to its characteristics as a "charitable act" supported by altruism and benevolence. Waqfs have proven to have been established by people out of more realistic and self-interested motives. By using original waqf-reated documents, the author of the present article examines the actual state of the instrument, as utilized by Mamluk amir Qijmas (d. 1487), from three perspectives : 1) the types of assets Qijmas endowed as waqfs and the process of creating those assets, 2) the contexts and purposes of establishing waqfs, by comparing the data gained from the documents with Qijmas' life history reconstructed from literary sources, and 3) how his personal relationships, especially within the Mamluk class, reflected the character of his waqfs. Through this examination, the author shows that Qijmas established waqfs with various motives, including the preservation of his wealth, working for the public good in accordance with his social status, enhancing the regime's or his own personal prestige, and practicing his piety and philanthropy. The author also shows that 1) the Mamluk's choices of establishing waqfs were heavily influenced not only by his current personal situation, but also by broader social and economic contexts, 2) personal relationships with his intimate Mamluk friends, such as the Sultan and his subordinates, were reflected in the character of his waqfs, and 3) these relationships were maintained and improved by the very act of establishing the waqfs. These characteristics demonstrate the meaning of establishing waqfs for a Mamluk who lived under very difficult circumstances in the late Mamluk period, while providing a glimpse of Qijmas's view of life and death. They also reveal the multifaceted and complex functions performed by the waqf, as well as how the waqf system was strategically and selectively utilized, depending on the personal and social circum- stances of the endower.
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  • Ikutaro NABETANI
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 358-385
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During World War I, a phenomenon that diverged greatly from the framework of the 19〜<th> century "Pax Britannica" world, which has been termed by historian Ishii Norie as the "early contemporary syndrome," emerged in earnest among the European countries embroiled in total war. This phenomenon included such aspects as the advent of mass democracy, monopoly capitalism (or at least state economic control relative to the advancement of monopoly capitalism), and a social welfare system, anticipating 20th century state intervention in solving social issues. It was in Germany where this "syndrome" emerged most sharply, and also in Germany where Marxian theorists affiliated with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) attempted to study the "syndrome" most systematically and explore its historical significance. This article, which focuses on Paul Lensch, the architect of a conceptual system called "wartime socialism" that placed World War I in the positive context of a socialist world revolution, is an attempt to trace once again his ideological struggle with the "early contemporary syndrome" during the War. Although Lensch was known before the War as a leftist theorist rivaling the likes of Rosa Luxemburg, as the conflict progressed, he changed his stance and supported it. However, Lensch's turn-around proves to be not as simple as the "about-face to social exclusionism" described by Lenin. Rather, Lensch continued his efforts to discover the historical meaning of the War and clearly postulate the "end of the modern era" from the standpoint of socialism.
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  • Haruhisa YUASA
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 386-393
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Morihiro KATO
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 393-401
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Shin'ichi TAKAGAMI
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 401-410
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 411-412
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 412-413
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 413-414
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 460-457
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 456-415
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages App1-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages App2-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Cover
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages Cover3-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
  • Type: Cover
    2011 Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages Cover4-
    Published: March 20, 2011
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
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