SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 122 , Issue 10
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Takushi KAWAGUCHI
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1661-1698
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper examines the winter quarters of Timur (1336?-1405) and their significance in his governance of the regime he founded. Timur's decision to eschew seasonal migration in favor of spending his winters in palaces with permanent architectural structures, his choice of their locations and the reasons for that choice all do not conform to the traditional Turko-Mongolian nomadic lifestyle, and thus cannot be fully explained from a pastoral viewpoint. Before founding his regime, Timur established his power based in the Khashka River basin, building his main winter quarters at his native city of Kish and at Qarshi, the latter of which was closely affiliated with the khans of Chaghatay Ulus. However, after founding his regime, he decided to establish a capital at Samarqand, which, although,best suited as the location for summer quarters, was made to serve as Timur's winter quarters, in order to better concentrate on domestic political affairs. Then from the mid-1370s on, he often spent his winters in Zanjir Saray, in the suburbs of Qarshi, for the purpose of ruling in place of the last politically powerful khan of the Chaghatay Ulus. Then, after his incursions into Western Asia, which began around 1380, Timur set up Kish as a capital located between Samaqand and Qarshi, resulting in a dual capital system. It was during 1387-88 that Timur would lose his important winter quarters as the result of the invasion of Mawarannahr by Toqtamish's army, which destroyed Zanjir Saray. From that time on, in the midst of repeated expeditions into Western Asia and the Qipchaq Steppe, the Qarabagh Plain in Northwestern Iran became favored as the location of Timur's winter quarters. Timur's rebuilding of Baylaqan and the construction of new canals was aimed at establishing the center of western regional imperial governance in Qarabagh, and a main highway with a system of relay stations functioned to connect Northwestern Iran with Central Asia. During his twilight years, Timur spent most of his remaining life in the Irano-Islamic garden spots (bagh) on the outskirts of Samarqand, where he constructed palaces to pass his winters. Theses baghs were architectural tributes to his imperial power and functioned as harems. Along with the construction of the town of Misr on the main highway between Samarqand and Kish, he provided baghs with palaces, pasture land, rest accommodations and way stations for travelers using the highway. It was in this way that the trunk line and its environs took on the appearance of a "capital region" for the empire.
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  • Keita NAKANISHI
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1699-1720
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The later years of the Russo-Japanese War have been drawing the attention of historians as an era of transformation in Japan's existing system of local administration; however, only the strengthening of supervision on the town and village level by means of institutional restructuring has been revealed. To the contrary, the author of the present article is of the opinion that by analyzing the relationship between the activities of related departments within the Home Ministry and the local administrative agencies on the ground during approximately twenty years of local administration prior to the period in question conducted on the basis of stable institutions, a new image of the Ministry may come to light. For this purpose, the author makes an historiographic examination of the National Archives of Japan collection of documents related to the Home Ministry transferred from the present Ministry of Home Affairs to the Archives, specifically records entitled "Kachu Iken" 課中意見 (Intradepartmental Opinions) and "Ukagai Shokai" 伺照会 (Inquiries). The latter are collections of mainly decisions on the part of ministers and departmental heads concerning the replies to public inquiries made to the Ministry from local authorities and other ministries. They also contain direct sections from Shi-sei/Choson-sei Reiki 市制町村制例規 (Local Administrative Precedents) cited as public and legal interpretations related to the matters in question, revealing administrative tasks of the filing and preservation of records describing actual administrative actions taken, which correspond to the conventional image of Japan's bureaucracy, including great emphasis on the importance of precedent. In contrast, Kachu Iken contain no official decisions and no documents emanating from the top levels of minister, departmental head or provincial governor. Rather than dealing with public communiques and enquiries, these records circulated through unofficial, informal channels. Consequently, we find here an atmosphere of free and open-minded exchange of opinions among the departmental members, characterized by more flexible responses to problems, like decisions that no legal interpretation was needed, since the inquiries were not "on the public record", and that while the Ministry would give silent approval, an administrative trial would never allow the remedy to stand. In other words, specific responses by departments put in charge of related affairs in light of extenuating circumstances exerted a great deal of sway in the way local administrative affairs were conducted. The author concludes that in pursuing the operations of and changes that occurred in local administration during the late Meiji period, focus must be placed on the exchange that occurred between local regions and the Home Ministry departments who were charged with guiding them administratively.
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  • Mitsutoshi SHIMOMURA
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1721-1746
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kanamori Tokujiro, who is best known as Minister of State for Constitutional Reform in the 1st Yoshida Shigeru Cabinet, was also regarded in Japan's prewar era as a constitutional scholar active in the offices of the bureaucracy dealing with legal institutions ; however, due a lack of detailed analysis in the research to date on the history of Japan's constitution in general and on the history of Imperial Institution Incident (25 Feb 1935) in particular, Kanamori's rightful place in the events of that time has yet to be established. In light of such cursory treatment of Kanamori by historians, the present article aims as examining Kanamori's ideas about such institutions as the Diet, cabinet and Emperor, focusing on his collected works other than his best known Teikoku Kenpo Yoko 帝国憲法要綱 (General Outline of the Imperial Constitution), in order to better clarify his interpretation of Japan's prewar constitution. The treatises chosen by the author for study enable a more detailed analysis of the subject matter than General Outline, because they reflect the political situation at the time of their publication. The article also provides a comparison of the ideas expressed by the other leading constitutional scholars of the day, in order place Kanamori in the political and constitutional history of prewar Japan. The author makes clear from the politically relevant sources he has chosen that Kanamori was of the opinion that the Diet was an advisory body to the emperor, that the cabinets acted in the role of independent counselor to the emperor on affairs of state, and regarding the emperor himself, Kanamori adhered to the principle of political dualism, consisting of a national polity (kokutai 国体) and a governmental regime (seitai 政体). All these views were based on accurate interpretations of the articles of the Imperial Constitution. Therefore, within the history of constitutional thought, Kanamori should be placed alongside Minobe Tatsukichi in his imperial institution view of the Constitution (tenno kikansetsu 天皇機関説; that the emperor was the highest placed organ in the governance of the national polity), and while not playing as proactive a role as Minobe in the dissemination of those views, he was certainly more enthusiastic than Constitutional Scholar Shimizu Toru, earning him a place in the ranks of those who regarded the emperor as an independent authority in the governance of the nation. Through the lens provided by Kanamori's orthodox, mainstream ideas, which needed no constitutional revisions to be consistent, the way in which the Constitution was enforced up through the year 1935 stands out in prominent relief.
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  • Tomoko WATANUKI
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1747-1754
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Koji FUKAYA
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1755-1763
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Yuriko YOKOYAMA
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1763-1772
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Yuru HUNG
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1773-1779
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1780-1781
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1781-1782
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (338K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1782-1783
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (338K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1783-1784
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (326K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1784-1785
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1822-1818
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages 1817-1786
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages App1-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (62K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages App2-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (62K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages App3-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages Cover3-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 10 Pages Cover4-
    Published: October 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
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