SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 122 , Issue 8
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Takanori YOSHINAGA
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1345-1373
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The research done recently on the activities of provincial-based proprietors of the warrior class (kokujin 国人) during the Muromachi and Sengoku periods tends to place emphasis on their relationship to the shoguns of the time. However, while it is clear that kokujin did profit from their connections to the shogunate while in Kyoto, their activities in the capital were by no means confined to that relationship alone. The present paper attempts to describe the actual circumstances surrounding kokujin life in the capital and thus clarify its true meaning. It was the custom of kokujin who managed the provincial estates donated to Toji temple, like the Niimi Clan of Bicchu Province, to locate kinsfolk in Kyoto in order to further their political and economic interests, including appointments to act on Toji's behalf at the temple's estates located in their home regions. In the case of the Niimi Clan, their Kyoto activities resulted in the appointment to the office of Mikurashiki 御蔵職, which involved the management of the storehouses (Kurodo-dokoro 蔵人所) and financial affairs of the imperial family and became intimately connected with iron production in various provinces. During the Tokugawa period it was the Matsugi 真継 Clan who would wrest the office of Mikurashiki from the Niimi Clan and thus govern over the country's cast iron founders ; but during the preceding Sengoku period, it was the Niimi Clan who set the precedent of imperial control over the iron founders of the Kinai Region. As the manager of Toji's Niimi Estate, the Niimi Clan was able to utilize the estate's iron production facilities to its advantage through commercial traffic with the ironmongers of the Kinai Region, whom the Niimis also employed to carry the estate's tribute to Toji temple in Kyoto. In other words, in their close dealings with Kinai merchants on the commercial routes in search of cast iron, the Niimis used these connections in their successful management of Toji's estate. It was through this process that the Niimi Clan set up its relations with the iron founders of the Kinai Region and profited from the office of Mikurashiki to the benefit of both parties. The author concludes that kokujin of the Sengoku period were ambitiously involved in the aggrandizement of their interests through their activities in the capital of Kyoto in the midst of diverse personal relationships with the capital's most powerful people, including not only the shogunate, but also the great religious institutions and the imperial family, thus protecting their interests both at their local seats of power and at the central core of authority in the capital.
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  • Masako TATSUMI
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1374-1401
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article discusses the changing and declining use of the document form known as shobunjo 処分状 during the Kamakura and Nanboku-cho periods in Japan from the perspective of Japanese family organization (ie 家) and inheritance. Based on the case of the Kujo 九条 Family, which was one of the Fujiwara Regent (sekkan 摂関) families, the author examines the process of changes that occurred in the function and form of shobunjo as the form of inheritance itself changed from property divided among several heirs to that based on primogeniture. Kujo Kanezane 九条兼実 drew up shobunjo so that the inheritance of his lands, which formed his financial base, to his descendants would be assured. In the background to this action lay the unstable financial state of the Kujo Family immediately after its separation from the Konoe 近衛 Family. Kanezane's successor, Kujo Michiie 九条道家 then devised a method of dividing the land for inheritance so as to increase the possibility that his descendants would become sekkan. As a result, the Kujo and the Ichijo 一条 Families separated at that time and Michiie's shobunjo acted to reconfirm and restructure the family lands ownership. In addition, both Kanezane's and Michiie's shobunjo included testamentary admonitions to their heirs. It was three generations later that Kujo Tadanori 九条忠教, the great-grandson of Michiie, decided to leave his property to a primary heir instead of multiple heirs, a change that greatly reduced the differences between shobunjo and another document dealing with inheritance, yuzurijo 譲状, in terms of both function and form. Consequently, these two documents, which had been theretofore classified as completely different and separate forms, began to become confused with one another. At the same time, testamentary admonitions, which used to be included in shobunjo were written as a separate document, which came to be known as okibumi 置文. In this way, with the change in the form of inheritance transitioning from multiple heirs to a single successor, the function of shobunjo in transferring property gave way to yuzurijo, the function of making testamentary admonitions to one's descendants was left to okibumi, and shobunjo, declined in use and finally disappeared.
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  • Hisashi ITO
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1401-1423
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article examines traditional cities that have existed since late premodern times and were reorganized as municipalities before the end of the Meiji era in 1912, for the purpose of empirically demonstrating a substantial percentage of cases in which elementary school zones served as the geographical unit on which federations of neighborhood associations (chonaikai rengokai 町内会連合会; FNA) were organized during the mid-wartime years of the Showa era (1926-1989). Even today, "communities" delineated by school zone boundaries are considered important in serving as organizations that create territorial bonds within large municipalities. Contrary to experts in the field of public administration who argue that it was a report submitted by the Quality of Life Council in 1969 that provided the opportunity to expand the existence of such "communities", the author is of the opinion that the urban experience during the mid-wartime years of the Showa era should be considered as an important reason why these "communities" have firmly established themselves, although in varying degrees, throughout Japan. Among the larger cities, the federation of traditional urban neighborhoods (machi 町) has served several purposes since the Meiji era (1868-1912), while in the provincial cities, the development of "communities" based on school zone borders gradually took place during the promotion of the Movement for General Mobilization of the National Spirit and the establishment of the civil air defense administration, both of which were initiated in 1937. Then upon a FNA directive issued by the Home Ministry in 1940, many cities complied, despite the discretionary nature of the provision, and a high percentage of the resulting federations were based on school zone boundaries. The majority of the cities examined in this article each have more than one hundred neighborhood associations, and among them FNA serve an intermediary role in many aspects of urban life connecting those municipalities with their neighborhood associations for various purposes. In doing so, several advantages existed in using school zones to form the first federations in wartime ; and the postwar era sources describe how FNA were reestablished in the provincial cities using school zones from as early as 1955.
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  • Hideo HATTORI
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1424-1432
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Toru NAKANOME
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1433-1438
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Jin SATO
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1438-1447
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Xiaohua MA
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1448-1454
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1455-1456
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (254K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1456-1457
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (274K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1457-1458
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (266K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1458-1459
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (259K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1459-1460
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (219K)
  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1506-1503
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (287K)
  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages 1502-1461
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages App1-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (59K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages App2-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (59K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages App3-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (59K)
  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages Cover3-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    2013 Volume 122 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 2013
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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