SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 123 , Issue 3
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages Cover1-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages Cover2-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Junji HASEGAWA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 333-371
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The changes that have occurred in the course of the Yellow River over the ages has been considered to be an important theme in the historical geography of China, and many researchers have conducted studies of the subject using various methods. The various explanations in the extant bibliographic sources about river course change in dynastic China were first summarized during the early Qing period by Hu Wei in his Yugong Zhuizhi 禹貢錐指 (Brief Study of "Tribute of Yu"), which proposed that major changes had occurred in the River's course. Hu's argument then formed the basis of various opinions that six or seven significant changes had occurred leading up to the existing course as of 1855, in such works as Zhongguo Lishi Ditu Ji 中国歴史地図集 (Collected Historical Maps of China) and Huanghe Zhi 黄河志 (Gazetteer of the Yellow River). In particular, as to the pre-Eastern Han era, all argued that the river's course had changed twice: one being observed during the Warring States period in the fifth year of the reign of Eastern Zhou King Ding (602 BC), the other occurring between the third year Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty (11 CE) and the 13 year of the reign of Later Han Emperor Ming (70 CE), in The flood control works of Wangjing 王景. However, as observed in Yugong Shanchuan Dilitu 禹貢山川地理図 (Geographical Maps of "Tribute of Yu") by Cheng Dachang 程大昌 of the Southern Song Dynasty, there was in pre-Ming Dynasty times a great deal of emphasis placed on the river course change project named after Provincial Governor Donqui 頓丘 in the third year of the reign of Former Han Emperor Wu (132 BC), while no mention is given to the Wangjing Project. The author has elsewhere reconstructed via remote sensing data the old course of the Yellow River between the Warring States and Former Han Periods and has shown, based on that reconstruction and micro upland topography, the changes that occurred in the river near Liaocheng, Shandong Province in 132 BC. In the present article, the author reexamines the traditional discourse concerning the changes that occurred up through the Latter Han Period, based on his previous findings. In addition, there is also information in the Hanshu's 漢書 "Gouzu Zhi" (Treatise on Canals and Rivers) section about the first Yellow River levee of the Warring States period, which Kimura Masao argues signifies the existence of state-operated irrigation projects in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, indicating one basic condition of ancient Chinese despotism. However, the author's reconstruction of the ancient river course and the present topographical data concerning the region shows these levies to have been formed by the Yellow River naturally, making it very difficult to concur with the conventional discourse that large scale irrigation projects were already underway in the lower Yellow River basin as early as the Warring States period.
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  • Akira MORI
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 372-374
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Kazuho SAKAI
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 375-401
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    This article is an attempt to clarify the characteristics of Japanese urban communities known as zaikata-machi 在方町, which differed from the three metropolises of Edo, Osaka and Kyoto or other castle towns. Many of these towns unaffiliated to castles, which were composed of residents with the status of hyakusho 百姓 (commoner) and consisted of several basic township units (cho 町 neighborhoods), prospered economically (especially in the Kanto region) beginning in the late 18th century. In this article, the author discusses and analyzes the by-laws indigenous to each cho of two Kanto region zaikata-machi, Chichibu and Sawara, in order to reveal some interesting characteristics and functions of these cho neighborhoods, contrasting them to their counterparts in the three metropolises and other castle towns. To begin with, the provisions in the law regarding cho membership were extremely few in number and simple in content. Furthermore, there were no provisions delineating special requirements for membership, regulating how residents disposed of their houses and the lots on which they were built or restricting their occupations. Secondly, the resident members of cho neighborhoods were composed of not only house-and-lot owners, but also many tenants renting houses or lots. Tenants were also eligible to hold representative and administrative positions in their cho neighborhoods. Based on these facts, the author comes to the conclusion that cho neighborhoods in zaikata-machi should be considered as organizations through which residents cooperated with one another for their livelihoods and self-defense, on the sole condition of living in a commonly shared space. In this sense, it is possible to argue that zaikata-machi were far less restricted and more open to new owners and tenants occupying available houses or lots than the three metropolises or other castle towns.
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  • Yoshiyuki OTSUBO
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 401-425
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    At the end of nineteenth century, the Qing Dynasty form of governance was brought out from "behind the curtain" (chuiliang tingzheng 垂簾聴政) and directly assumed by Emperor Guangxu 光緒, while the Empress Dowager Cixi 慈禧 continued to enjoy a certain amount of political power. However, under the policy making mechanism shared by the Emperor and his mother, such empirical questions as how policy was actually decided, in what ways court retainers participated in the process and the interaction between the emperor and dowager when making policy decisions as yet remain unclear. The author's research to date, based on analysis of the diaries and correspondence of the central figures in the policy making process, indicates that imperial audiences, the submission of memorials and court retainer councils were the three main means for the opinions of the Empress Dowager during her reign "behind the curtain" to be integrated with those of court retainers. Building upon these findings, the present article attempts to reconstruct the decision making process during the direct rule of Emperor Guangxu using the same kind of source materials and analytical methodology. More specifically, the author turns to the two diaries written by Weng Tonghe 翁同和, entitled Weng Tonghe Riji 翁同和日記 and Suishouji 随手記, to examine the case of the dispatch of Li Hongzhang 李鴻章 to Japan as the plenipotentiary negotiator over the issue of ending the 1st Sino-Japanese War, and describe the process leading up to the decision to grant Li the authority to negotiate the conditions of the cession of Chinese territory to the Japanese. This case shows that court retainers considered the major venue for decision making to be direct audiences with the Emperor, supplemented by councils held in the Chuangxin Dian 伝心殿 hall. It was here that they debated and ironed out the direction they thought should be taken in recognizing territorial cession, from where they approached the Emperor to bring him over to their side. Meanwhile, the Emperor, from the very beginning of the process, used the presence of Weng Tonghe at these meetings to inject his own ideas into the general debate. Then, at the stage when cession became inevitable, the final decision was left to the Empress Dowager. However, Cixi refused to make the decision for reason of illness, thus forcing the Emperor to decide the matter on his own. It is at this point that we can observe the existence of maneuvering between the Emperor and his mother, in order to avoid responsibility for making the final decision, after the fateful audience with court retainers convinced the Emperor to approve the territorial cession. Furthermore, from their words and actions, the author concludes that it was the Emperor Guangxi and Empress Dowager that made the actual decisions concerning government policy.
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  • Daisuke HAYASHIMA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 426-430
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Takeshi ABE
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 430-440
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Masako KOHAMA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 440-446
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Motoya NAKAMURA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 446-450
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Takeo HASEGAWA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 451-460
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 461-463
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (356K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 463-464
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (259K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 464-465
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (249K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 465-466
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 466-467
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (201K)
  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 510-506
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages 505-468
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages App1-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages App2-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages Cover3-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 3 Pages Cover4-
    Published: March 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (42K)
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