SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 123 , Issue 4
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Takashi KAWATO
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 511-544
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article examines the peculiar characteristics of cadasters conducted during the Toyotomi Hideyoshi regime by focusing on why the currency described as "eirakusen" 永楽銭 (originally denoting copper coins minted during the Ming Dynasty's Yongle 永楽 era) was adopted in 1590 as the standard for taxation (kandaka 貫高) in Aizu, which was part of the territory under the feudal lords of Mutsu and Dewa Provinces chastised by Hideyoshi in the Ou Shioki 奥羽仕置 of 1590. The reason for basing land taxes on "eirakusen" instead of rice output (kokudaka 石高) in the Aizu fief was because 1) the kandaka system was already functioning in Aizu prior to the Shioki and 2) it was deemed necessary to secure and occupy the territory as quickly as possible. Upon his arrival in Aizu, Gamo Ujisato, to whom Hideyoshi had granted the fief under the Shioki's provisions, began collecting tribute. Although the research to date purports that half of the tribute was rendered in rice and the other in money, the author argues that the process was not exactly that straight forward; for payment in money was the rule, and according to the tax ledgers, the denomination was "eirakusen". Based on this conclusion the author turns to the question of what sort of currency "eirakusen" actually was. After comparing the "eirakusen" actually levied as tribute with the value of gold during the time in question, the author finds that "eirakusen" was worth about the same as the normal currency of the day, leading him to conclude that in this case "eirakusen" did not denote Ming Yongle era Chinese coins and had no special value. Noting the fact that in the feudal territory of the Gohojo Clan immediately before its downfall that the value of Ming Yongle era coins was regarded as more valuable than other coins, the Toyotomi regime mistakenly assumed that this was true throughout Mutsu and Dewa, and accordingly established that currency, which it called "eirakusen", as the means of tribute payment in the provisions of the Shioki. Since Ming Yongle era coins were in fact not circulating in the region, the "eirakusen" unit of tribute set in Aizu did not exist in form, but only as entries on the pages of tax ledgers. Consequently, the "eirakusen" ledger entries had to be converted into circulating currency and rice at fixed rates of exchange before tribute could be collected. Although land policy in territories occupied by the Toyotomi regime often seems to have flexibly responded to what was actually happening on the ground, there were cases in which the process of preparing its system of military vassalage would become so hectic that even local monetary currency circulation practices were not sufficiently understood.
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  • Ken'ichi MATSUSHITA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 545-568
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    The present article reexamines the longstanding debate over the Northern Wei Dynasty's disbandment of tribal peoples within its territory, through an analysis of the words, 太和十二年, 代都平城改俟懃曹, 創立司州, contained in the epitaph of Yuang Chang 元萇, discovered in the city of Jiyuan, Henan Province in 2003. The author begins with the characters siqincao 俟懃曹. Siqin 俟懃 designates the bureaucratic name given to tribal chieftains among the Kumoxi and Murong-bu among the Xianbei people as well as the Rouran, and is similar to the Turkut Irkin 俟斤. From the fact that the Murong-bu governed their tribes by installing eight sili 俟釐 in the central, eastern, etc. areas of their territory, siqincao, which combines the Hui term 俟懃 with cao, the Han term for administrative center, therefore means tribal area governance agency, which is expressed in the Weishu 魏書, as Babu Daifu 八部大夫 (hereafter Baguo 八国), Liubu Darenguan 六部大人官, etc. Next the author examines the development of the Sinqincao (Baguo) agency. In contrast to the conventional understanding that the Baguo administrative system was gradually downsized into six, then four jurisdictions, to be completely abandoned during the reign of Emperor Xaowen (467-499), the author argues that 1) the institution of Baguo was created based on the nomadic traditions of such peoples as the southern Xiongnu and Xianbei and 2) the four jurisdiction Sibu 四部 system instituted during the reign of Emperor Taiwu (408-452) was still headed by eight chieftains and therefore represented no substantive change from the Baguo system. The Baguo system continued in tact until the 2nd year of the Taihe era (488), when its jurisdictions were renamed Sizhou 司州. Finally, the author investigates the meaning of the abandonment of the Sinqincao system in favor of Sizhou. It was in the 1st year of the Tianxing era (398) that Emperor Daowu established a permanent capital at Pingcheng, divided the kingdom into the Jinei 畿内 (capital) and Jiaodian 郊甸 (outer provincial) regions and established Sizhou for the purpose of governing the Han people residing there. At the same time, Siqincao (Baguo) was established to govern the northern tribal peoples inhabiting the two regions. The Baguo system continued in tact changing in name only from Liubu 六部 to Sibu then back to Liubu until its abandonment in 488, at which time, Emperor Xiowen placed the northern tribes under Sizhou governance, to be uniformly administered according to geo-political (junxin 郡県) districting. Therefore, the tribal disbandment carried out by Emperor Daomu cannot be said to have involved actually breaking up tribal households and registering people like Han inhabitants; but rather signifies tribal peoples affiliated with the Wei Dynasty being placed under the direct rule of the Wei emperor and governed by means of the Sinqincao system.
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  • Akira ASHIBE
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 569-593
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Explaining the features and historical developments of social policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, focusing on Catholicism during the 1950s, is indispensable due to the influence of Catholicism on various aspects of politics and society at that time. That influence is also evident in the housing policy implemented at the time. Within the framework of social housing, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) gave priority in the second Housing Act of 1956 to the construction of privately owned single family dwellings, each with an adjacent garden and barn. To explain the conceptual foundations of this policy, the author focuses on politician Paul Lucke, the CDU's chief housing policy-maker, and the Catholic intellectuals around him. First, Lucke and his colleagues designed the housing policy based on the idea of enabling the private ownership of land and houses among a broad strata of the population, based on the Catholic social teaching that private ownership is regarded as the basis of an autonomous personality. Through this policy, they aimed at resisting the collectivism of East Germany that created, in their words, the "impersonal masses". Secondly, Lucke's group conceptualized the houses they envisioned as "Familienheim", thereby incorporating Catholic views of family into their housing policy; to wit, private property enables the patriarch to rule his family and protect them against the threat of intervention by the state. Finally, Lucke's group emphasized the value of self-help in the process of housing construction. That is to say, they regarded the construction of one's own home as practicing the kind of self-help promoted in Catholic social teaching. Considering these policy features, the author concludes that the CDU's housing policy was based on principles derived from Catholic social doctrine. Relative to other housing reform concepts, the CDU opposed reformers who sought to create new social ties in urban areas through the promotion of new types of collective dwelling plans; and garnering support from reformers critical of metropolises, it promoted housing rooted in the soil. From the above urban reform perspective, the CDU's housing policy could be assessed as conservative; however, given the characteristics of those Catholic social teachings that reject socialist or collectivist avenues to social reform and attempt to find a path guided by the Catholic concept of personality, the CDU's housing policy should rather be viewed as pursuing social reform through Catholic perspectives.
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  • Ryuichi KOGACHI
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 594-599
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Toshikazu HISAMIZU
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 599-606
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Fumi ASHINA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 607-615
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Izuru OTA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 615-621
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 622-623
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 623-624
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 625-626
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 626-627
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 627-628
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 628-629
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 629-630
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 672-668
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages 667-631
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages App2-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages App3-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (38K)
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