SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 124 , Issue 2
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (27K)
  • Tomonori OI
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 177-209
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper attempts to elicit the reality of the Hapsburg Empire's global seafaring prowess despite its reputation as a mainly continental power, in light of historical findings that an Imperial warship had been stationed in the seas of East Asia approximately 100 years ago. Research regarding Western navies stationed overseas has in the past focused largely on their use as a means of military competition or imperialistic ambitions toward the non-Western world. However, here the author points to another purpose with which warships were deployed overseas; namely, to serve as media for promoting international relations within the daily routine of peacetime conditions. After outlining the deployment system of warships outside of the region of Europe, and the reasons, circumstances and substance of the Hapsburg Empire's stationing of a warship in East Asian waters, the author turns to the specific duties of the ship, in particular, how it performed the very important duty of any Western navy in protecting its country's citizen and commercial interests in the region. However, since the Hapsburg Empire had no overseas interests or citizens to protect in East Asia, it was impossible for the Austro-Hungarians to set up a system of direct protection like that of the other major powers, due mainly to its unique position in having only a single warship to accommodate such needs. The author then addresses the subject of goodwill exchange, which he considers to be the most important daily routine of the Hapsburg warship, and looks there for the ultimate reason for stationing it in East Asian waters. Finally, he focuses on the military band on board the ship, in order to clarify the fact that the Hapsburg Empire was concerned in identifying with maritime coastal society in East Asia through the medium of music. The Hapsburg Empire thus intended to adapt to the imperial order as a major power in East Asia by carefully cultivating various daily peacetime routines.
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  • Hisamoto OTA
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 210-236
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    In 1933 the Imperial Japanese Navy went through a comprehensive restructuring of its organization, through the process of revising its Naval General Staff Regulations and Protocol for Naval Ministry-Staff Liaison Affairs. What these revisions amounted to was the Naval General Staff attaining autonomy from a system formerly dominated by the Naval Ministry. Although we find some mention of these revisions in the research to date on the Imperial Navy, the relative inavailability of source materials has hindered any full-scale, detailed treatment of the subject. Here the author attempts to fill the existing gaps by offering a more detailed account of the response of the Navy's top mind's in an analysis of the information offered by the diary of Iwamura Seiichi, then senior adjutant in the Naval Ministry. In time of war with the establishment of Imperial Headquarters, the Naval General Staff was to be the agency for implementing IH's naval functions, while during peacetime, the Ministry was in charge of naval affairs. Although there was dissatisfaction within the ranks concerning such an arrangement, the Ministry refused to address the problem, thus maintaining the status quo. However, the situation began to change surrounding the issue of supreme command raised at the first London Naval Disarmament Conference of 1930. Over the issue of troop strength, the Naval General Staff demanded that the Ministry make concessions, resulting in the implementation in 1933 of measures expanding the authority of the Naval General Staff. These revisions were particularly important for the issues of troop strength and who controlled the flow of military developments. The former issue, which was the source of attacks on the government from the Seiyukai Party and right-wing organization, had not been provided for in the existing Liaison Affairs Protocol; however, provisions were made as the result of a proposal submitted by the Chief of Staff and successful negotiations with the Minister of the Navy. Control over the flow of military developments had been in peacetime part of the Naval General Staff's regimental command authority. For example, when the need arose to protect Japanese citizens residing abroad, the Naval Minister would request the despatch of troops and after cabinet approval, the Naval General Staff would begin strategy planning under the leadership of the Naval Minister. However, following the Protocol revisions, the Naval General Staff was permitted to propose troop deployment independently. In other words, within the revision process, the Naval General Staff was able for the first time to establish autonomous authority over naval affairs.
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  • Shinji OTANI
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 237-260
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article discusses the development of political scientist Yabe Teiji's ideas about democracy in relation to the debate over how Japan's constitutional monarchy should function (kokutairon), based on an analysis of a critique of Yabe's seminar at Tokyo Imperial University submitted in 1938 by one of his students, Odamura Kojiro, as the answers to the final examination. The author begins with an examination of the copy of Odamura's list of criticisms about the seminar, which contain corrections and revisions made in Yabe's handwriting prior to Odamura's expulsion from the university after the publication of his ideas in the national press. Yabe's glosses pertained more to adding comments about the kokutai question than merely correcting a student's final exam. With the exception of the comments devoted to Japan's "sovereign dictatorship", Yabe's comments attempted to substantiate the kokutai question in more concrete terms, in an attempt to place it within the context of the discourse regarding democracy. In the correspondence that ensued between teacher and student, Yabe was again challenged by Odamura and again made revisions to his ideas, upon examination of which, the author of the present article notices wide-ranging changes occurring in Yabe's approach to democratic institutions. In sum, in response to Odamura's demands Yabe, while not referring specifically to Japan, is found emphasizing his patented understanding of "democracy as an institutional mechanism", but also attempting to more accurately describe its connections and interaction with the idea of "kokutai". However, an even more significant change occurred in Yabe's thinking on the subject after his study of the legalistic arguments on the rule of law posed by National Socialist German Workers Party jurist Otto Koellreutter and a consequent attempt to place kokutai within the fundamental norms prioritizing the positive (as opposed to natural) constitutional legal order. Therefore, Yabe offered the possibility of providing legal legitimacy to interpretations and constitutional amendments indispensable to the implementation of the further centralization of executive powers desired by the new regime. This development in Yabe's political science was, the author argues, first given impetus by Odamura's critique. Nevertheless, since Yabe was of the fundamental opinion that kokutai was a non-entity, he did not go into concrete detail on the subject. That is to say, although kokutai exists as a fundamental norm, it has no actual function as a frame of reference for constitutional interpretation. Consequently, Yabe came to the rather illogical conclusion that constitutional interpretation was ultimately determined extra-legally within the struggle for political power, an idea that became, quite unintentionally on Yabe's part, fraught with the danger of having the reverse effect on the actual process of kokutai-based reforms.
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  • Shosuke KOCHI
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 261-269
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Shun ISHIDA
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 269-276
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Suguru UMEMURA
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 277-284
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Ken'ichi NEJIME
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 284-292
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 293-294
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 294-295
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 295-296
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 296-297
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 297-298
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 299-300
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 300-301
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (239K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 301-302
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 336-332
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages 331-303
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
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