SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 124 , Issue 3
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages Cover1-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages Cover2-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Yuji KUBOTA
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 337-371
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of the present article is to reexamine Japan's policy regarding international investment loans to China made during the premiership of Terauchi Masatake (1916-18), by focusing the analysis on the approach proposed by Finance Minister Shoda Kazue and the relationship between the Terauchi Cabinet and the China investment consortium. The research to date has tended to focus attention on the aspect of the imperialistic international financial aspect of the eight loans totalling 145 million yen lent to the Duan Qirui (段祺端) government through Terauchi's personal secretary Nishihara Kamezo, the united front put up by Terauchi, Shoda and Nishihara, known as the "Korean Group" (朝鮮組), and the role played by the "unofficial" Sino-Japanese network formed by Nishihara. In particular, the work focusing on the historical development of Japanese capitalism has pointed to the Nishihara loans as the event marking a transition from a unified Korean-Manchurian monetary policy to the formation of a Japan-Manchuria-China monetary bloc (the gold-backed yen bloc), but has yet to 1) sufficiently analyze Shoda's specific ideas regarding investment loans to China and 2) place the funds earmarked to finance the second wave of Chinese political reforms within the Terauchi Cabinet's overall investment loan policy. The author's reexamination brings to light three new facts. First, while emphasizing the "unification of Korean-Manchurian monetary affairs", Shoda also promoted a policy of investment lending on the "Chine proper" involving not only existing institutions there, but also the founding of a new Japan-China joint venture bank. Secondly, the large scale loans that the Terauchi Cabinet began granting beginning in March 1918 should be considered as part of a two-pronged policy for regulating domestic specie combined with strengthening and expanding Japanese interests in Manchuria, Mongolia and the Shandong Peninsula. Finally, Shoda was by no means critical of China's August 1918 gold certificate regulations promoted by Nishihara; however, he was not enthusiastic about the necessity of having to export domestic specie. The author also identifies differences in the policy approaches taken by Shoda and Nishihara. Nishihara's refusal to recognize a Chinese fiscal management mechanism based on the international investment consortium in favor of a Chinese government enjoying "amicable relations with Japan" contrasted with Shoda's official position as Finance Minister emphasizing the necessity of "Sino-Japanese friendship" in combination with "US-Japanese cooperation". Because Shoda believed in the existence of investment loan contracts that would not contradict "US-Japanese cooperation", the contracts concluded during its administration were bound to follow the precedents set by the preceding Hara Takashi Cabinet. Consequently, Shoda Kazue's policy approach can be characterized as aiming at 1) the unification of Korean-Manchurian monetary affairs, 2) solving domestic Japanese economic issues and 3) strengthening and expanding Japanese interests in Manchuria, Mongolia and Shandong, all based on the assumption that economic cooperation with China was critical to the development of Japan's post-World War I economy. The "Korean Group" notwithstanding, the author argues, there were significant differences among its members regarding what was to be done concerning the "Chine proper".
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  • Joji FUJII
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 372-374
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Misato ONO
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 375-400
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    This article takes up the issue of how a region (Huabei) was formed in parts of northern China under military occupation as the result of what Japan referred to as a "incident" (jihen 事変), also known as the undeclared 2nd Sino-Japanese War, taking up the case of that region's educational policy and institutions. The question of what influence the fact that war was never declared (prior to the involvement of the World War II Allied Forces) exerted on the governance of Huabei has not been given much attention in the research to date, despite that fact that it is an important factor when examining the characteristic features of the Japanese occupation. In order to demonstrate that importance, the author takes up how education was administered throughout Huabei and the problems posed for third country operated schools. To begin with, in order to continue its military activities in Huabei it was critical for Japan to explain its aggression as a "incident" short of declaring war on China, not only to implement military rule by the North China Area Army (NCAA), but also to legitimize the full scale adoption of the rules of engagement without giving third countries the impression of Japan's intention to open full scale hostilities. Consequently, a government was set up in Huabei manned by Chinese nationals assisted by Japanese advisors under the supervision of the NCAA. This kind of indirect governance affected every attempt to administer education in the region, which took priority over every other aspect of governance (food supply, resource allocation, the maintenance of public order, due to its importance in training indigenous subaltern personnel acquiescent to de facto Japanese rule over the region. However, the "incident" was bound to cause serious friction between the occupation authorities and the interests of third country (US, German, ect.) nationals who continued to reside in the occupied territory. In particular, trouble arose between the occupation authorities and institutions of higher learning operated by third country nationals over issues ranging from acceptance of the new occupation order to the recruitment of the elite who were earmarked as the region's future leaders. While the occupation authorities applied pressure on third country high schools through their mobilization of Japanese teachers and introduction of Japanese customs, the foreigners resisted through diplomatic channels between their home countries and Japan, succeeding in preserving both their social prestige and popularity. It was in this way that the necessity of treating the 2nd Sino-Japanese War as a "incident" made it impossible for the Japanese Army to take direct control over administering occupied Huabei, enabled third countries to retain their interests under the occupation and thus significantly restrained the Japanese occupation of China until the outbreak of the Pacific War.
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  • Yusuke SATO
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 401-416
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Naoki KUMANO
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 417-425
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hideto SATSUMA
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 425-432
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Sigeki TOYAMA
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 432-441
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 442-443
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 443-445
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (341K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 445-446
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 446-447
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (254K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 447-448
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (259K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 448-449
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 490-487
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 486-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages 485-450
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages App1-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages App2-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages Cover3-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 3 Pages Cover4-
    Published: March 20, 2015
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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