SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 124 , Issue 6
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Article
  • Madoka NIIMI
    Type: Article
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 6 Pages 1077-1113
    Published: June 20, 2015
    Released: June 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The study of the history of Tang China which focuses on the transition from the Tang to the Song Dynasty has recently broadened its purview from the Han Chinese world proper to the whole region spanning eastern Eurasia. In the present article the author focuses on the mid-ninth century civil disturbances occurring among the governors ( jiedushi 節度使) of fanzen 藩鎮 regional garrisons and their relationship to the Dynastic transition, taking up the concrete example of the rebellion of Liu Zhen 劉稹, the governor of Zhao-Yi 昭義 in Eastern Shanxi Province.
    Despite the overwhelming opinion that the rebellion represents an " exception " in the fanzen civil disturbances, the author's analysis of Liu Zhen's close advisors shows that the incident should be directly understood as an element of fanzen civil unrest as it developed after the An Lushan 安禄山 Rebellion (755-63). Moreover, the fact that the imperial court took on the task of quelling Liu's rebellion reflects the defeat of the remnants of the Uighur nomadic empire that had risen during that time on the Tang Dynasty's northern periphery. Also, through its divide and conquer tactic of appealing to common interests it shared with Liu's army, the court was able to avoid one threat by negotiating over succession to the three garrisons of Hebei. However, due to the large demilitarization of the region after the rebellion, a huge outflow of surplus military personnel into Henan took place, resulting in region becoming racked with brigandage, smuggling and outright rebellion. Given the situation described above, the author concludes that the rebellion of Liu Zhen and China's policy regarding the three garrisons north of the Huanghe, as well as the instability characterizing Henan were for the Tang Dynasty problems not exclusively "domestic" in nature, but rather linked to what was going in the hinterlands of Inner Asia. That is to say, from the An Lushan Rebellion on, in addition to need to defend its northern borders, the Tang Dynasty had to amass a huge military campaign into the hinterlands for the defense of the northern three garrisons. Then during the reign of Emperor Wuzong, with the destruction of the Uighur Empire, the court deployed its northern defense forces to quell the fanzhen rebellions raging in the interior. Via such efforts, the court was also able to secure the northern three garrisons, thus almost simultaneously eliminating any military threat to the Middle Kingdom. This is why the court then embarked on the demilitarization of the remote hinterland fanzhen, which were now deemed unnecessary. Consequently, the demobilized troops having no place to settle turned into a domestic source of civil unrest.
    The rebellion of Liu Zhen was therefore an event which symbolizes the changing situation of the mid-ninth century, in which reverberations caused by the destruction of the nomadic empire of the steppe rumbled through the Taihang Mountains into Hebei, and eventually became an indirect source of civil unrest in Henan.
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Research Notes
  • Katsunori ONISHI
    Type: Research Notes
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 6 Pages 1114-1128
    Published: June 20, 2015
    Released: June 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    After the alliance was concluded between the Bourbons and the Hapsburgs, the Italian states enjoyed an era of peace during the second half of the 18^<th> century and were able to institute many reforms under the influence of Enlightenment thought. The reform that took place in Tuscany during the reign of Peter Leopold (1765-1790) is one example of such Enlightenment-influenced efforts. The first half of Leopold's reign, in particular, is considered to be an example of physiocratic reform; and many historians have discussed his increasing the land tax and thus realizing a new society based on landlords. However, recent research has raised doubt that such reform actually did concentrate tax burdens on landlords or in anyway increase revenue via the land tax during the period in question. The reform of the local administrative system at that time did realize communities under the control of landlord; but a more concrete analysis of the reforms regarding land taxes demonstrates that 1) they contributed more to simplifying the system than increasing tax revenues and 2) Tuscan public finance during the age of Peter Leopold depended more on large variety of indirect taxes. In other words, Peter Leopold did entrust local administrative affairs to landlords; but fiscally speaking, his government continued to be sustained mainly by individual citizens and urban industry.
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  • Hiroki KASHIHARA
    Type: Research Notes
    2015 Volume 124 Issue 6 Pages 1128-1152
    Published: June 20, 2015
    Released: June 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Much of the research to date dealing with development of the "Okuma fiscal regime" has pointed to the fact of Councillor of State Okuma Shigenobu, who was in 1873 jointly appointed to the posts of managing director of the Ministry of Finance in May, then Treasury minister in October, promoting a very aggressive fiscal policy by integrating and controling the Ministry. Furthermore, Okuma is often depicted as forming along with Ito Hirobumi one wing of the Okubo Toshimichi Cabinet regime and as supporting Okubo and Ito's policies regarding the Ministries of Internal Affairs and Public Works. The present article attempts to reexamine the image of the "Okuma fiscal regime", focusing on its political historical aspects; in particular, the political and institutional issues surrounding Okuma and the Finance Ministry, including the councillor of state's political position within the government. As a result of his investigation, the author finds not only the existence of weakness, instability and a fear of failure inherent in the political actions taken by Okuma, but also of a continuing institutional instability within the Finance Ministry itself, which demanded reforms to the Grand Council of State system, all of which were the root causes of conflicts impeding fiscal policy. In other words, the author describes a jurisdictional dispute over fiscal authority between the Finance Ministry and Council of State's Legislative Agency (Sa'in 左院), whose duties remained institutionally ambiguous, a state of affairs that was developing in the direction of the formation of a Privy Council (Sei'in 正院) Fiscal Bureau, not to mention the cloud being cast by such conflict over policy making and budget decisions. This conflict prevented the Finance Ministry from consolidating its budget measures; for example, the Public Works Ministry budget that was earmarked for cuts, was allowed to continue at the same rate of reduction as in the 1874 budget, which marked the Ministry's largest allocation to date. The reason for this situation, which has been attributed to such factors as the retention of previous year's budget levels in order to avoid politicizing the issues involved and Public Works Minister Ito's personal opposition to the cuts, should also include the view of Okuma and the Finance Ministry's weak and unstable positions, instead of arguing all in the interest of the "Okuma fiscal regime", thus necessitating certain reservations about the conventional image of that "regime". In addition, the author argues that the relationship between Okuma and Okubo, who would eventually come to Okuma's rescue, was not as solid as usually believed, due to such facts as the influential minister taking away the merchant ship jurisdiction by taking advantage of the dangers his treasury minister was facing, thus necessitating a reexamination of the whole "Okubo Cabinet Regime" debate. Finally, the above mentioned elements of weakness and instability would be eliminated in October 1875 with the resignation of such figures as Shimazu Hisamitsu as deputy prime minister and revisions to the protocol defining the Finance Ministry's bureaucratic duties, both of which were sine qua non for the further development of the "Okuma fiscal regime".
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