This article considers the characteristics of Buddhism in China under the Nortern Dynasties, by collecting, classifying and analyzing over 2500 inscriptions on Buddhist statues built in this period. After these statues are classified into three categories -bronze statues, stone statues and cave sculpture- their chronological changes, regional distribution, image type and the social status of their founders are each analyzed in turn. In the period of the Northern Dynasties innumerable Buddhist statues of various sizes were built by emperors, noblemen and commoners. This boom originated in the Northern Wei dynasty which constructed the Yun-kang cave temples (while its capital was located at P'ing-ch'eng) and excavated the Lung-men cave temples (after it transfered its capital to Lo-yang). The imperial house took the lead in constructing these large cave temples. Such a practice spread due to its propagation by the Buddhist body, until the building and worship of stone statues gradually became popular, reaching their peak in the 6th century. The Sakyamuni-Buddha and Maitreya-Bodhisattva images were mostly made during the Northern Wei dynasty. Then the making of Avalokitesvara-Bodhisattva images increased rapidly under the Eastern Wei and Northern Ch'i dynasties. In the contents of prayers the following three types of objects were noticeable : (1)a desire to enter heaven after death, (2)a desire to live under the Maitreya-Bodhisattva, and (3)a prayer for peace for the emperor and the state. The first shows that trans migrationism of Buddhism had a great influence on the Chinese outlook on life. People in the period of the Northern Southern Dynasties conceived of heaven (天) by uniting the idea of "Paradise" (浄土) in Buddhism with that of "Providence" (天) in the traditional thought of China. Also, they often used Taoist ideas of heaven. The second came from the belief that Maitreya-Bodhisattva, the Saviour, would appear to save the world sometime after the death of Sakyamuni-Buddha. After the middle of the 5th century the faith of Maitreya was widespread in Northern China. The third was a prayer for the "enperor's peace of mind" and the "protection of the state." This shows that Buddhism under the Northern Dynasties functioned as a ruling ideology of the state. It seems that those phenomena about Buddhist statues made in the period of the Northern Dynasties resulted from the following historical process. The Buddhist clergy and laity, which had been annihilated under the oppression (446-451 A.D.) by T'ai-wuti, were quickly reconstructed under the strict control of the state after his death. Compelled to depend upon the power of the state, the Buddhists constructed a cave temple at Yun-kang and made for the North ern Wei emperor great images of Sakyamuni and Maitreya which were modelled after him. Thus Buddhism came to play a role in adoration of him through its stress on Sakyamuni and Maitreya. The same is true of the Lung-men temple. Buddhists also dispatched many monks throughout the country, who organized lay religious groups at various places and encouraged them to build a statue and hold liturgical rituals by following the example of the construction of the Yun-kang and Lung-men cave temples. As a result images of Sakyamuni and Maitreya were numerous under the Northern Wei dynasty, and prayers "for the sake of the emperor" or "for the the sake of the state" were frequently found inscribed on them. After the Northern Wei divided into the Eastern and Western Wei, however, images of Sakyamuni and Maitreya which had been associated with the Northern Wei emperor decreased, and in their place people came to worship those of Avalokitesvara-Bodhisattva as wonder-working.
In the Ryo-no-Shuge in its present form are three volumes called the Ishitsu-Ryo-no-Shuge (異質令集解) which have a different commentary from that found elsewhere in the Ryo-no-Shuge (令集解). The authors of this article have examined the Ryo-no-Shuge to determine the value of the Ishitsu-Ryo-no-Shuge as research material for historians. This study has led the authors to the following conclusions : 1.The Ishitsu-Ryo-no-Shuge is in fact a compilation -but it is not the Ryo-shiki (令私記) written by Myoboka (明法家). 2.It originally was a commentary on a whole body of Ryo different from the Ryo-no-Shuge. 3.It was not said to have been compiled to make up for deficiencies in the Ryo-no-Shuge. 4.Its contents led the two authors of this article to conclude that it was compiled sometime in the early Heian Period. 5.It was used for the purpose of supplementing gaps in the Ryo-no-Shuge from the first year of Heiji (平治) (1159) to the first year of Bun'o (文応) (1260). By studying the relationship between the Ishitsu-Ryo-no-Shuge and similar commentaries the authors come to the tentative conclusion that the Ryo-no-Shuge was based on either a book which had been compiled to edit the Ryo-Ritsu-Mondo-Shiki (令律問答私記) which Nukada-no-Imatari (額田今足) had advised or on the Ryo-no-Gige (令義解) which had enlarged it.
This essay is based on the diary kept by General Suzuki Teiichi (1888- ) from September 27,1933 until August 29,1934. At the time Lieutenant colonel Suzuki (promoted to colonel in December 1933) served as the chief of the press section of the Army until March of 1934 when he resigned to become secretary of the research department of the Army Staff College, Suzuki was close to General Araki Sadao who was the Army Minister until January of 1934. Thereafter, Suzuki became one of the important members of the Kodo-ha which was centered around General Araki. This essay uses the informatibn from Suzuki's diary to analyze four important topics involving the army during the 1933-1934 period. First, we have looked at the different army factions which became politically influential after the Manchurian Incident. In particular, we have examined the process by which the anti-Ugaki party headed by Generals Araki, Mazaki, Hayashi divided into the Kodo-ha and the Tosei-ha after General Araki's resignation in 1934. Secondly, we have examined Suzuki's relationship to those in the inner circle around Genro Saionji, in particular Harada Kumao, Kido Koichi, and Konoye Fumimaro. The third topic covered in this essay involves the relationship between the army and the cabinet. Finally, we have closely examined and analyzed the role of the chief of the Army press section. By using this diary, we have been able to examine the inner structure of the army as well as analyze some of the actions involving high army officers during this crucial 1933-1934 period.