La monarquia absoluta de Espana del siglo XVI padecia con una penuria financiera cronica imputable, sobre todo, al costeamiento de las guerras que sostenian la politica dinastica de la Casa de Austria. El gobierno central, por tanto, tenia que tratar de aumentar al maximo los ingresos de fisco. En este articulo, investigo tal politica financiera (Fiskalismus) en relacion con el comercio de las Indias. Para este objeto, averiguo tres ingresos de fisco (almojarifazgo, quinto real y derechos de fundidor) y la averia. La base para la regulacion del trafico mercantil con las Indias era el registro de metales preciosos y mercancias, segun el que se imponia el almojarifazgo. Pero los mercaderes podian esquivar el pago en Espena y las Indias por la injusticia o la evitacion del registro. No se cobraba el almojarifazgo sobre metales preciosos, pero los mercaderes no los registraban ilegalmente por las razones siguientes. Frecuentemente los mineros en las Indias no pagaban quinto real ni derechos de fundidor sobre metales preciosos de variadas maneras. En caso de que no se presentaran estos a la Casa de Fundicion, no podian llevar la marca y su ilegalidad se manifestaba a primera vista. Para ocultarla era necesario evitar el registro. Ademas, ello hacia posible escapar de la confiscacion de tesoros de mercaderes por el poder real, apremiado por urgentes necesidades. La averia, instruida para cubrir las expensas de la armada que escoltaba las flotas, se derramaba entre rey y mercaderes y se recaudaba, como el almojarifazgo, de conformidad con el registro. Por esto, la injusticia o la evitacion del registro alzaba la tasa de la averia y una parte del cargo de los mercaderes imputaba al erar io. De este modo, se impedia la ejecucion de Fiskalismus acerca del comercio con las Indias. Una causa que permitia diversos fraudes antifiscales es, por supuesto, la imperfeccion del sistema administrativo. Pero la mas impotante es que los oficiales, especialmente los Jueces Oficiales de la Casa de la Contratacion de las Indias en Sevilla que era el nucleo de regulacion, tomaban parte por los mercaderes para aumentar ingresos de su propio oficio (Korruption que proviene del caracter patrimonial de los oficios de la Edad de monarquia absoluta).
In March Cf 1868, the Meiji government's regulations against Christianity were made public. These new regulations in terms of content were inherited directly from the Bakufu. This decision was due to the complicated state of national affairs which included attacks on the government by the remnants of the Bakufu army and the ongoing clashes between foreigners and anti-foreigners. However, once these regulations were issued as law, the government had to preserve them, lest any change weaken its own authority and become a source of criticism against the government by those elements opposed to the new Meiji regime. The exiling of the thirty-four hundred Christians from Urakami Village in Nagasaki was the largest concession the Meiji government could make to foreign countries. This decision was implemented in December of 1869 despite delays resulting from the war. At first, the regulations concerning Christianity had no connection with the plan to make Shinto the established religion. However, this link was made during the government's efforts to retain the anti-Christian regulations. Accordingly, though the government promised generous treatment to foreigners after the Urakami villagers had been exiled, the government did not have any concrete plans to carry out its promise. Only in the fall of 1870 did Christianity become a subject of lively debate in the government, and that was simply because there was a fear of a problem possibly taking place in Kagoshima, the home of many important people in the government. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which had been receiving a constant stream of protests from foreign countries, understood that the problem of Christianity in Japan was an important one in foreign affairs. Yet, it had little power in the government and so did not participate in the making of government policy decisions concerning this issue. Nonetheless, the Foreign Ministry had continued to appeal to the government to keep the promises it had made to other countries. In the spring of 1871 the central government's suppression of the rebel forces ended in success. In July of the same year the "han" system was dissolved and replaced by the "ken" system of local government. As the government continued to centralize power and to institute organizational changes in the governmental system, it then began to show its willingness to change its policy by its handling of the Imari Incident in Saga and its release of those Urakami villagers who had given up their belief in Christianity. Also emerging at this time were demands for the end of any anti-Christian regulations by members of Japanese governmental missions in Europe and America. In February of 1872 when the government's concern over the discontented elements in Japan had come to an end, the enforcing of anti-Christian regulations also came to an end. In this way we can see that while the Meiji government's policy towards Christianity was a concern of Japanese foreign policy, essentially it was influenced more by domestic political factors and changes during this Period.