SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 87 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (21K)
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (21K)
  • Yasushi Aoki
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 139-173,274-27
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Yorkshire Movement in 1780 was a challenge to the oligarchic politics of eighteenth-century England. Extraparliamentary reformers wanted not only economic but also parliamentary reforms, and they opposed aristocratic control of them. Though aristocratic, the Whig party co-operated with such reformers seeking economic reforms. Edmund Burke, a Whig spokesman, wrote in a letter that the strength of the party was without, and not within the House of Commons. But the party did not approve of plans of parliamentary reform and resisted radical attempts to restrict the independence of members of parliament. How can this liberal-conservative ambivalence of the Whig party be explained? The arguments the party used to explain its stand can be summarized as follows : 1)The influence of the crown on politics was dangerous, so no other radical reform was necessary once the crown's influence was reduced by the economic reforms. 2)Members of parliament, when united into a political party and acting with discretion, can protect the constitution and the interests of the people against the influence of the crown. 3)The people at large should be highly esteemed so long as they support the political party. But they cannot take the initiative. Though the Whig party used similar arguments before the rise of the Yorkshire Movement, the party's conception of the people remained vague until 1780, when the reformers outside of parliament became too strong and assertive to remain vaguely defined. Then the Whig party began to admit that it and other reformers disagreed over some points, but it still sought to remain friendly with these reformers. It promised to perform timely moderate reforms and asked, in exchange, the radicals to refrain from violence. This "give and take," by which the liberal-conservative arguments of the party survived the Yorkshire Movement, was a precursor of the "reform to prevent a revolution" theory which the Whig ministry used to justify the great reform in 1832. Such political flexibility permitted the Whigs and nineteenth-century English politics to adapt smoothly to the rise of industrial society. *The author gladly acknowledges the goodwill of the Earl Fitzwilliam and the staff of the Sheffield Central Library for the use of Wentworth Woodhouse Muniments.
    Download PDF (2739K)
  • Shuichi Kaneko
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 174-202,273-27
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify one historical feature of imperial power in China through a study of a change in the treatment of two festivals permitted to the emperor alone -the chiao-ssu (郊祀), the festival of heaven, and the tsung-miao (宗廟), the festival of the ancestral spirits. As has been already shown by one scholar, the Han period emperors from the second reign on customarily worshipped at the shrine of Kao-tzu (高祖), the founder of the dynasty, immediately after their coronation. These emperors thereby maintained their own imperial power by receiving Heaven's will through an intermediary, the ancestral spirit. During the T'ang period, however, the treatment of these festivals was more complicated and varied. Both T'ai-tsung (太宗) and Su-tsung (粛宗), who succeeded to the throne before the death of their predecessors, held the ritual of reporting to Heaven on the occasion of their coronation. After his coronation Kao-tsung (高宗) celebrated chiao-ssu prior to tsung-miao, as he intended his chiao-ssu worship to be a response to Heaven's will and thus different from later chiao-ssu worship he performed. Hsuan-tsung (玄宗) held the ritual of yeh-miao (謁廟). That is, unlike other T'ang emperors he worshipped at the shrine of the ancestral spirits just like the Han emperors. In the latter half of the T'ang, most of the emperors held, three festivals, Lao-tzu miao (老子廟), tsung-miao, and chiao-ssu. The dates of these festivals conformed to such standard dates of the chiao-ssu as the winter solistice, thus suggesting that the main emphasis was put on the celebration of the chiao-ssu. The final T'ang emperor, Ai-ti (哀帝), unsuccessfully sought to perpetuate the T'ang dynasty through celebration of the chiao-ssu. In this way the T'ang can be seen to have attached primary importance to the chaio-ssu in marked contrast to the Han. In the Six Dynasties period the yeh-miao ritual was used in the Southern dynasties only when the person succeeding to the throne was not the crown prince. It can also be seen that during the Six Dynasties the chiao-ssu was increasingly celebrated. Such information shows that from the Six Dynasties to the T'ang the yeh-miao ritual gradually became obsolete and gave way to the celebration of the chiao-ssu by a newly-enthroned emperor himself. We may therefor conclude that the role played by the chiao-ssu in the main-tenance of imperial authority gradually increased in importance during the centuries between the Han and T'ang.
    Download PDF (2938K)
  • Hironobu Sato
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 203-218,272-27
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article seeks to clarify concretely the relationship between two powerful families in the Sengoku period, the Gohojoshi and the Ashikagashi, as part of the author's research on Kogakubo (古河公方). While rejecting such explanations of these families' relationship as one of compromise or envelopment, theories which ignore the strained relationship between these families, the author examines step by step the strained relations between these two families. He concludes that their relationship developed in the following stages : 1.Before the establishment of marital relations 2.After the establishment of marital relations 3.After the rise of Kubo Yoshiuji (公方義氏) a.Hoshun・indono (芳春院殿) b.Hoshun・inshuko (芳春院周興) 4.The era of Hojo Ujiteru (北条氏照) After the fourth stage the Gohojoshi control of the government was accomplished, and the Kogakubo Ashikagashi existed only as a symbol of authority, thus distinguishing this period from earlier periods when the Ashikagashi held real power. Stages two and three were when the Kogakubo Ashikagashi tried to maintain its power through its symbolic authority. The Gohojoshi was establishing close relations with it through marriages. Then, as a member of the family and the actual Kanto Kanrei (関東管領), Gohojoshi took full advantage of its power and sought to establish itself as Daimyo-Ryogoku-Sei (大名領国制). Thus, the Gohojoshi held a two-sided relationship with the Ashikagashi. During the third stage this two-sided relationship continued when Yoshiuji was not at all a puppet. Hoshun・indono, the daughter of Hojo Ujitsuna (北条氏綱の娘) and mother of Yoshiuji, and then later on the Zen monk Hoshun・inshuko both played important function in developing this two-sided relationship to an extreme degree. Hoshun・inshuko, as the head of the sojya (奏者), had an important role in many ways, even in the composition of formal documents, and he took an active role in changing the power structure of the kubo. Also, at this time the Esso (越相) Alliance was formed between two former rivals, Echigo Uesugishi (越後上杉) and Gohojoshi. This new alliance confirmed the relationship between the Gohojoshi and the Kubo Yoshiuji, while it also brought to an end the external function of Yoshiuji. Thereby the Gohojoshi could end its two-sided relationship with Yoshiuji and changed him into just one of the feudal lords under the Gohojoshi rule. Yoshiuji survived only as a symbol of authority without any political base but for his position as an ancestor of the Ashikagashi.
    Download PDF (1779K)
  • S. Murayama
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 219-224
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (669K)
  • T. Hirase
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 225-231
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (688K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 232-233
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (236K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 233-234
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (268K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 234-235
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (271K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 235-236
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (199K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 237-244
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (403K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 245-
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (89K)
  • Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 246-270
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1718K)
  • Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 271-274
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (258K)
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (44K)
feedback
Top