SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 87 , Issue 7
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages Cover1-
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages Cover2-
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Tsukasa Mizushima
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1099-1123,1128
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    From the point of view of agricultural indebtedness and its effects on rural areas, we can classify most of the South Indian villages into three large groups. The first group consists of villages situated in productive irrigated territory. Such villages are the object of active investment by outside merchants and by both local and external rich ryots, who advance funds with the aim of acquiring the borrower's land. This gives rise to land-transfers which in turn produce highly developed landlordism, including absentee landlordism. Under the resulting landlord-tenant relationship, the produce of the land is taken as rent by the investor. The second group consists of unirrigated villages situated among the irrigated villages. In this area there is less investment directed towards land than the first, so that landlordism and absentee landlordism do not develop to any great extent. Advances made by traders with the purpose of securing agricultural produce are seldom found ; even when such advances are made, the ryots encounter no restrictions in the sale of their crops. The third group consists of villages in dry territory. In this case, town-based merchants make advances to the ryots in order to secure a constant supply of goods as well as to receive dealing charges. Absentee landlordism, however, does not develop because the merchants' funds are limited and the production in the area is unstable. Disposal of the crops is monopolized by the merchants, and a ryot who has received an advance from one merchant is prohibited from dealing with any other. In case that the ryot is unable to hand over the stipulated quantity of goods, moreover, he is forced to pay the merchant a specified fee.
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  • Yoshifumi Kubozoe
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1124-1142,1126-
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Thanks to the scholarly efforts of Yan K'eng-wang (厳耕望), the general outline of the shang-shu-sheng system in the Northern Wei Period is now available. In my opinion, however, there are several debatable points in Professor Yan's analysis, the points which I will deal with in this paper. The discussion will consist of three sections, each briefly stating Professor Yan's view, followed by my comments. (1)After its creation during the reign of the First Emperor, Tao-wu-ti (道武帝), the shang-shu-sheng alternated between periods of abolishment and restoration. In the second year of T'ien-hsing (天興) (399 A.D.) the shang-shu-sheng was abolished only to be revived immediately, perhaps at the end of the following year. After that, it was never completely abolished. The annals of the second year of T'ien-tz'u (天賜) (405 A.D.) record that "(the work of) the shang-shu's 36 ts'ao (曹) is discontinued." But that did not mean the end of the entire sheng system. (2)During the reign of the next emperor, Ming-yuan-ti (明元帝), the system was totally abolished. We can infer that the shang-shu-sheng existed in the reign of Ming-yuan-ti. One important piece of evidence is the fact that the Eight ta-jen-kuan (大人官), which Professor Yan believes were established in order to serve as substitutes for the shang-shu, never performed those kind of duties. Another piece of evidence is the fact that there were at least five appointees to the shang-shu during Ming-yuan-ti's reign, in spite of Professor Yan's statement that he was unable to discover any appointees for this period. The number of appointees was not lower at this time than at the reign of Tao-wu-ti. And, of course, the shang-shu was in existence from the outset of the reign of T'ai-wu-ti (太武帝), the Third Emperor. (3)Between the time of T'ai-wu-ti and the first half of the reign of the Sixth Emperor, Hsiao-wen-ti (孝文帝), the shang-shu-lang (尚書郎) was abolished in its entirety and replaced by the offices of ta-fu (大夫), ling (令), and chang (長). Since there was the "shuang-kuei (双軌) system" in the Northern Wei Period, one can imagine that ta-fu, ling, chang, and shang-shu-lang existed side by side. It is not possible, I believe, to deny this claim only with the evidences presented by Professor Yan. This paper also touches on the ta-jen-kuan of the Northern Wei Period, the topic closely related to the arguments mentioned above.
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  • Hiroshi Kasamatsu
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1143-1151,1125-
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In contrast to the modern technical usage of the term "komonjo." as an academic discipline, "komonjo" in the Middle Ages simply meant "old documents", that is, outdated documents of no value. This essay looks into the standards of value that set aside some documents as "komonjo", in other words, the reasons for "monjo" being devalued to "komonjo". In the late Kamakura period, "Heike Io Monjo" (平家以往文書), which appeared in legal documents of the Bakufu courts, were the prime example of "komonjo" or "the outdated documents". The Bakufu evaluated these documents simply according to the time of issue, excluding other factors such as the political importance of the issuers. Only the documents issued after the establishment of the Bakufu had legal power, while the pre-Bakufu documents were regarded as valueless "komonjo". In contrast, the Kenmu Government set up by Godaigo Tenno evaluated documents, not on the basis of the dates of issue but on the basis of the political ties it had with the issuers. Moreprecisely, the criterion for evaluation was the degree of antagonism in relations between the issuer and the Kenmu Government. The courts of the Muromachi Bakufu, on the other hand, did not classify any documents as legally valueless "komonjo", whether based on time factors or on political factors. As we have seen, the standard for defining documents as "komonjo" related closely to the character of the power structure of the time. An understanding of the term "komonjo" as used in the Middle Ages and the basis for its definition provides a clue for discovering, in concrete terms, the meaning that the transfer of political power had at that time.
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  • Osamu Kawagoe
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1152-1160
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • N. Koiwa
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1161-1167
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • S. Ikeda
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1167-1174
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • M. Tanigawa
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1174-1183
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1184-1186
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (366K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1186-1187
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (274K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1187-1188
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (281K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1189-1190
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1190-1191
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1191-1192
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (202K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1193-1196
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1197-1224
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages 1225-1228
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 7 Pages Cover4-
    Published: July 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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