SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 87 , Issue 8
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Masashi Ishibiki
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1129-1165,1268
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    La pensee politique reformee ou calviniste, qui a joue un role important dans l'histoire moderne, avait deja germe, ne serait-ce qu'en partie, chez les reformateurs de la region de l'Allemagne meridionale et de la Suisse, avant l'apparition meme de Jean Calvin. Parmi les principales sources du calvinisme, l'une des plus determinantes est la pensee de Martin Bucer, reformateur de la ville de Strasbourg. Bucer, ancien disciple de Luther, s'est separe de ^son maitre en exposant la double theorie du "pouvoir chretien" et du "pouvoir inferieur." Par la premiere, il reclame une intervention du pouvoir civil dans les affaires religieuses, par la derniere il defend les droits du pouvoir inferieur face au pouvoir superieur. Et c'est au moment ou il participait a la realisation des differentes reformes locales, que, precisement de par ces idees-la, il se heurtait toujours aux "lutheriens" Bucer a consolide ses theories au cours de sa lutte pour l'abolition de la messe et de sa controverse avec les non-conformistes. Tout alla bien entre l'autorite civile et Bucer, lorsqu'il s'agit d'amener l'abolition de la messe. Mais celle-ci une fois realisee, il fallut organiser l'Eglise de Strasbourg sur les bases de la nouvelle idee religieuse et c'est alors que l'entente parfaite qui existait jusqu'ici entre les deux s'est deterioree. Le probleme de la discipline ecclesiastique fut a l'origine de cette dissension. Malgre cela, la pensee fondamentale de Bucer concernant le pouvoir civil ne s'en trouva pas ebranlee. Au contraire, le theme qui lui etait cher : <<distinction en vue d'une meilleure collaboration des deux>> s'est clarifie et affermi. Et c'est bien la que Bucer se distinguait de Luther et de Zwingli et se rapprochait de Calvin.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1165-
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Hideo Hattori
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1166-1196,1267-
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    I.Transportation Routes The special characteristics of medieval transportation routes in and out of Kuma gun (which includes Hitoyoshi no sho) were as follows : First, in spite of the provincial border barriers, they enabled Kuma gun to maintain close contacts with Masaki-in, Hyuga and Ushikuso-in, Satsuma, and also linked directly to Kuninaka, Higo, i.e., the Kumamoto plains. Second, of the communication links to each of the provincial seats in Hyuga, Osumi, and Satsuma, the function of a major artery connecting Kuma gun to Kyoto and Kamakura was assigned to the road to Hyuga over Kyushu's spinal mountain range. This choice was made because it passed through Taragi, the domain of the Hitoyoshi Sagaras' soryo (惣領). The weight placed on the Kuma-Hyuga route reflected the system of subordination of shoshi (庶子) to soryo. However, the internal disturbances that split the imperial lineages set the Hitoyoshi Sagaras and the Taragi Sagaras off against each other. Because this development made the road to Hyuga inaccessible, the Hitoyoshi Sagaras developed an alternate arterial route, called Sashiki Dori, in the direction of Yatsushiro Bay. This move corresponded to the weakening centripetal force directed toward Kyoto and Kamakura, i.e., the gradual breaking down of shoen (庄園) and gokenin (御家人) structures. Having acquired one transportation route in the direction of Yatsushiro Bay, the Hitoyoshi Sagaras cut another road, Azechi Dori, during the warring period for exclusively military purposes. II.Shinden Development (shinden 新田 -newly reclaimed rice fields) First, an attempt was made to reconstruct the Sagaras' hold as the jito (地頭) of Hitoyoshi no sho, on the area around Samuta Horinouchi, relying on the aerial photo, land registration map and on-the-spot investigations. In contrast to the rest of this general region, a rectangular pattern of land division indicated clearly the Sagaras' well planned development. A good illustration was the irrigation system. The Sagaras altered the natural course of water and dammed it to flow into Samuta Horinouchi. At the point of each change of course and at the springs on the plateau, temples (bodaiji 菩提寺) were constructed. Inasmuch as bodaiji had no familial ties to the Sagaras, we can assume that the temples functioned as places for popular worship. Any changes in the nature of the temples corresponded to the changes in the irrigation system. The above observation led to a conclusion that, in order to solidify their power, the Sagaras sought to control and develop old rice fields rather than open shinden. Secondly, the same attempt was made through examining the written documents. Here, it was found that, both the jito and the ryoke (領家) had definite limitations on shares (tokubun 得分) they could take from old rice fields called kishoden (起請田), leaving the peasants with a possibility of certain independence. In the case of shinden, however, only the ryoke's share was restricted, while the jito's share, having no set limitations, tended to absorb the entire surplus. Thus, the Sagaras succeeded in extending a tight control over shinden, which were synonymous to "jito-developed" rice fields. A land investigation of Shogen (1259 -60) indicates that ryoke were denied any share from these rice fields, and illustrates clearly the marked encroachment of jito-ryoshu power. The two examinations above led to seemingly contradictory conclusions regarding the nature of the Sagaras' power basis : kishoden from the on-the-spot investigation, and shinden from the written documents. The explanation is found in the changing designations for the rice fields : kishoden were transformed into "shinden" --that is, rice fields directly administered by the jito. This explains why, at the time of the Shogen investigation, the jito was able to deny the ryoke any share from the land. The figures in the Shogen land

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  • Kentoku Yamamuro
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1197-1212,1265-
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Japanese Communist Party (JCP) was organized in 1922, but it was not until 1926 that the organizational structure of the party was set up in a definite manner. This was largely due to the efforts of Sano Fumio, Watanabe Masanosuke, and Fukumoto Kazuo, members of the Permanent Standing Committee. This committee should have been directed by the JCP Central Committee but in reality it controlled the workings of the party. The ideas about organizing the party structure as conceived by Sano, Watanabe, and Fukumoto were thus approved without substantial discussion by the party Central Committee and the Party Congress. At this time the newly organized JCP made efforts to recruit many new members, most of who knew little about the policies or structure of the JCP but who as members of the left wing movement were impressed if only by the fact that the illegal JCP had been organized in a formal manner. The JCP which operated in secret during this period conducted the following three types of activities. First, directives from the Permanent Standing Committee were sent to the individual JCP cells where they were discussed and if necessary carried out. Second, members of the party were encouraged to organize secret factions of party members with in labor unions and other larger left wing groups. Third, members of the party were urged to legally set up newspapers and magazines which were able to promote the left wing movement in general. In 1927 the Comintern sent a message criticizing the secret nature of the JCP. In response to this criticism the party beginning in late 1927 reorganized itself and emerged openly as the JCP. In an effort to broaden and enlarge the membership of the party some 400 new members were recruited. It was at this time that the party members began using illegal slogans such as "Abolish the Monarchy!", and these slogans along with the existance of the JCP were made public. However, because the party was small and weak, and due to its illegal nature, the JCP's influence in Japan was limited. The public emergence of the JCP and the resulting suppression by authorities also affected the left wing movement in general. As authorities moved against more moderate groups in the left wing movement, these same groups were inclined to enter a period of illegal activities.
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  • Y. Ogura
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1213-1219
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • I. Sato
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1220-1228
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1229-1230
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1230-1231
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1231-1232
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1233-1235
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1236-1263
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages 1264-1268
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (347K)
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 87 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 1978
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (43K)
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