史学雑誌
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
88 巻 , 10 号
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 早川 庄八
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1477-1497,1614
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author examines the accounts of Shoku-Nihongi contained in the columns of August the 21st, 700, February the 6th, 724, and March the 22nd, 724. This article, which gives a supplementary explanation to the author's former article, runs as follows. (1)It seems that the Dajokan under the Kiyomigahara-Ryo was scarcely invested with the power of deliberating on national affairs. (2)On the other hand, the Giseikan (Council) in the Dajokan system under the Taiho-Ryo was empowered to draft and discuss bills, and it was also authorized to make laws independently. (3)It is also assumed that the Giseikan was invested with the power of deliberating even on imperial edicts. (4)This growth of the power and function of the Giseikan resulted from the consistent efforts that the nobles in Kinai had made to enlarge their influence on national affairs. (5)Therefore the Dajokan system under the Taiho-Ryo was a compromise measure which the crown proposed to such nobles. However the crown didn't fail to devise other measures to counteract their political growth. The title of Dajotenno (abdicated emperor) was enacted, and the office of Chidajokanji (extra chief minister) was established. (6)Considering the process of their establishent, the Dajokan and Giseikan system under the Taiho-Ryo was essentially hostile to the imperial authority.
  • 金子 修一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1498-1539,1612-
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the forms of the festivals of heaven and earth (chiao-ssu, 郊祀) and the festivals of the emperor's ancestors (tsung-miao, 宗廟) from the Six Dynasties to the T'ang. In China, the chiao-ssu festival is performed only by the emperor, and the tsung-miao festival of the emperor is bigger than that of any other. Therefore to investigate the actual forms of these festivals is to partially investigate the characteristics of the Imperial System in China. In the Chin (晋) and the Southern Dynasties, the festivalof the heaven was held every other year in January in the south suburb of the capital, and that of the earth was performed in the north suburb. This system is similar to the theory of Wang Su (王粛) who was a confucian in the early Chin. In the Northern Dynasties, the Sui (隋) and the early T'ang, the god of heaven was worshiped at the round hill in the winter solstice, and the god of earth at the square hill in the summer solstice. Furthermore, Kan-sheng-ti (感生帝) -the heavenly god who corresponds to the 'virtue' (徳) of each dynasty- was worshiped in the south suburb, while another god of the earth, Shen-chou (神州) which was different from that worshiped at the square hill, was sacrificed to in the north suburb. From the Northern Wei to the T'ang, the date of the festival in the north suburb was not fixed. To separate the festival of the round hill from that of the south suburb, and the festival of the square hill from that of the north suburb is a division based on the theory of Cheng Hsuan (鄭). On the other hand, Wang Su says that the festival held at the round hill is the same as that held in the south suburb, and the festival at the square hill is the same as that held in the north suburb. In effect, from the Northern Dynasties to the early T'ang, the festival system indicated by Cheng Hsuan was in use while from the Chin to the Ch'en (陳) dynasty a system close to Wang Su's was in practice. However, according to Wang Su's theory, the chiao-ssu festivals at the south suburb are held in January and in the winter solstice. The festivals of the Ts'ao-Wei (曹魏) period are similar to those of the Cheng Hsuan's theory, but there are some special features in the line-up of gods. Generally speaking, the system of the festivals of heaven and earth was organized after the Tung-Chin (東晋) dynasty. The festivals of the emperor's ancestors are almost the same in all the dynasties. They consist of two varieties ; ssu-shih-chi (四時祭), small festivals which are held four or five times a year, and yin-chi (殷祭), big festivals which are held twice every five years. In the T'ang dynasty the system of festivals were changed three times. The various systems were called the Ch'en-kuan li (貞観礼), the Hsien-ch'ing li (顕慶礼), and the K'ai-yuan li (開元礼). Amongst them notable it is that the festivals of Kan-sheng-ti are replaced by those of hao-t'ien-shang-ti (昊天上帝) who is the greatest god in heaven, and that other festivals related to hao-t'ien-shang-ti also appeared in the T'ang dynasty. Furthermore, the festivals of hao-t'ien-shang-ti were decided to be held every year and the T'ang emperors even held them in connection with their coronation. Therefore it may be safely said that during the T'ang dynasty great importance was attached to the authority of heaven.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1539-
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 森 義信
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1540-1564,1611-
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Im Mittelalter entstanden oft die Hungersnote durch MiBernte, Gewitter, Uberschwemmung, Krieg oder durch eine Vereinigung solcher Umstande. Noch eine Gruppe von Ursachen sind zu erwahnen, die sich unter den Begriff der handelspolitischen Selbstsuchten zusammenfassen lassen. Die damaligen Geschichtsquellen erzahlen uns ofters von Seuche, MiBernte und Hungersnot. Im allgemeinen dienen die Annalen zur zeitlichen und ortlichen Fixierung der einzelnen Hungersnote. Und die mehreren Kapitularien schlieBen die Bestimmungen zum Schutze der dadurch Geschadigten ein. Der Mensch im Mittelalter sah in der Not eine Strafe fur die Sunden der Menschheit. Darum dachte Karl der GroBe zunachst an geistliche Notstandspolitiken, Fasten und Messelesen. Dann griff er auch mit den weltlichen Mitteln in die Hilfe der Notleidenden ein. Weil die armen Bauern zum Selbstverkaufe getrieben wurden oder ihre Hutten verlieBen und umher wanderten. Dabei wurden auch unreine Tiere, Gras, Wurzel und Baumrinde verzehrt. Noch dazu war die schlimmste Erscheinung die Menschenfresserei. Der Kaiser befahl in einem Kapitulare den Machtigten, Bischof, Abt, Graf und koniglichen Vasallen die Zahlung einer Art Notsteuer. Die Grundherren sollten auBerdem in Notjahren neben dem Unterhalte der eigenen Angehorigen noch zahlreichen Armen helfen. Trotzdem. hatten sie vor oder zur Ernte Getreide billig gekauft, um es den armen Bauern spater bei hoheren Preisen zu verkaufen oder auf Zinsen auszuleihen. Der Gewinn fur die Grundherren konnte zwei-od. dreifach sein. Karl griff also in die ungeheure Preissteigerung des Getreides ein und setzte die Preistaxe fest. Der "Handel" des Lebensmittels wirkte aber nicht in genugender Weise, um Hungersnot verhindern zu konnen. Also befahl der Kaiser notwendigerweise, in Notjahren die Nahrungsmittel im Lande zu halten. Und dazu sollte die Uberproduktion aus den koniglichen Gutern zu niedrigern Preisen verkauft werden. Der Kaiser fuhrte selbst einen neuen, groBeren Modius als offentliches MaB ein, weil die vielen pauperes wegen der verschiedenen im Gebrauch befindlichen MaBe geschadigt wurden. Agrarpolitisch forderte Karl Rodung, Dungung und Erhalten des besten Saatgut, um den Ertrag der Landwirtschaft zu mehren. Diese Verordnungen sollten im Zusammenhang mit den allgemeinen Hungersnoten von 792/93 und 805/06 erlassen werden.
  • 安田 次郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1565-1572
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 水林 彪
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1572-1579
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 井上 泰男
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1579-1585
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 石井 進, 三谷 博
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1586-1587
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 柳 宏吉
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1587-1588
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 池田 温
    原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1588-1589
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1590-1610
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 原稿種別: 本文
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. 1611-1614
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
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  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1979 年 88 巻 10 号 p. Cover4-
    発行日: 1979/10/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
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