The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the local ruling methods of the Asakura-shi who gained supremacy in Echizen-no-kuni, mainly through their struggle in the Onin-Bunmei rebellions in the late fifteenth century. The special features of the local rule of the Asakura-shi are presented in five major points below. First, by analysing local rule in the manors Kawaguchi-no-sho and Tsuboe-no-sho (河口・坪江庄), which were of principal significance to the Asakura-shi in ruling Echizen-no-kuni, the following three points become clear. One, Kofuku-ji, Daijo-in (興福寺大乗院), the original owner of these manors was dependent on the ruling organization of the Asakura-shi to get the tribute of these manors. Two, this function which the ruling organization of the Asakura-shi held originated in the power that the Asakura-shi were able to govern the jige-uke (地下請), an autonomous method of organizing tribute work done by the peasants. Three, the peasants' jige-uke was carried out through the myo (名), a tribute collecting organization under the manor system. Second, we further argue that the three features shown above are also applicable to local rule of the Asakura-shi in other areas of Echizen-no-kuni. For this purpose the methods used by the Asakura-shi to ensure the security of the possessions of temples and kyunin (local lords controlled by the Asakura-shi) are analysed and the following conclusion was reached. The function of the Asakura-shi in guaranteeing the security of the possessions of temples and kyunin derives from the fact that the Asakura-shi had power to control the peasants' jige-uke. Third, we examine the question of why the Asakura-shi were able to direct the jige-uke of the peasants. As an answer we indicate the fact that the Asakura-shi were able to organize the manor lords, temples and Kyunin with their own structure by supporting the common position of manor lords, temples and Kyunin against peasants in regard to the harvest of the land. Fourth, we point out that Ikko-ikki (一向一揆) existed as an antagonistic force which shook the ruling system of the Asakura-shi whose existence was founded on the situation outlined in the third major point. Fifth, another basis of the Asakura-shi ruling system was found in the policy of the Asakura-shi in regard to transportation and distribution. We show that the Asakura-shi controlled the means of transport which were points of contact where transport and distribution activity in Echizen-no-kuni met their counterparts from other domains.
The Southern Liang dynasty in the Wu-hu-shih-liu-kuo (五胡十六国) period was a very short-lived local dynasty that rose and fell in Ch'ing-hai (青海) province. This dynasty carried out numerous Hsi-min measures. The aim of this article is to make clear the purpose of these Hsi-min measures with relation to the structure of the dynasty. The Southern Liang dynasty carried out twelve Hsi-min measures which is the greatest number in any of the Five Liang dynasties. Countermeasures accompanying the suppression of a rebellion were infrequent, and in eight of the twelve cases the object of Hsi-min measures was to deal with the Chinese under the various hostile Liang dynasties. They were not from the powerful strate of society but mainly from the peasant strate. The aggressive action of the Southern Liang constantly proceeded to achieve the aim of forced migration of these Chinese. The Southern Liang dynasty waged an aggressive war against forces hostile to it by forcing all the Chinese people under its jurisdiction to engage in agricultural production around walled cities, and by using the tax revenue extracted from them as a financial basis to organize military forces made up of the mobile Hsien-pei (鮮卑) tribe. However, since the number of Chinese under their rule was not large, the Southern Liang had to move Chinese people out of areas under the hostile forces by means of the Hsi-min measures. Also in the case of the Hsia dynasty which was established by the Hsiung-nu (匈奴), the Hsi-min measures were carried out to move Chinese under the hostile forces with the aim of supplying labour for agricultural work. The two common features of the Southern Liang and the Hsia dynasties are the following ; one, the minority race which ruled the dynasty was not agrarian but mainly nomadic ; and two, both were dynasties on the frontier, where there were few Chinese.