SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 89 , Issue 6
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Jun Nakamura
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 939-973,1072-1
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    This paper is an attempt to discuss why, in spite of the loss of her empire in 404 B.C., Athens restored radical democracy after trying to change the constitution under the "Thirty Tyrants". A clue to the solution of this problem lies in the study of the constitutional plans of two leading statesmen, Theramenes and Critias. 1)Theramenes' Plan of 404 B.C. There are indications that Aristotle distorted the facts about Theramenes and the Thirty Tyrants in his Athenaion Politeia. An examination of Aristotle's description led the author to the conclusion that this distortion occurred because Aristotle was well acquainted with the constitutional plan of Theramenes and sympathized with it. Therefore, with respect to the constitutional plan of Theramenes in 404 B.C., it is possible to give credence to Aristotle's opinion that Theramenes aimed at Patrios Politeia. It is thought that Patrios Politeia was the constitution in which active citizenship was restricted to the hoplitai and other upper classes, and in which allowances for civil servants (except the military) were abolished. On the other hand, in the thesis on the revolution of 411 B.C., Prof. De ste. Croix has argued that in the constitution of the Five Thousand of 411 B.C., only rights concerning civil servants and councilors were limited by Theramenes. On the authority of this thesis, Mr. MacCoy described Theramenes' clique as moderate democrats, and denied the existence of its program of 404 B.C. to restrict citizen participation. However, if the MacCoy thesis is considered from the reality of Theramenes' clique, this thesis cannot be supported, at least, with respect to the plan of 404 B.C., because Theramenes' clique lacked close similarity to the organization and continuity of modern political party. It is doubtful whether they had constitutional principles drawn from theories about social classes and forms of government. In 404 B.C., overcoming the loss of the empire was the first consideration. There was no need to be democrats for Theramenes and other men around him at that time. 2)The plan of Critias There was a struggle between Theramenes and Critias about some measures, for example, mass executions for and registration of citizens, enacted under the Thirty Tyrants. The author infers from the measures taken by Critias and some pieces of Critias' works that Critias aimed at a constitution modelled on that of Sparta. As the Spartan constitution was vital for Sparta in subjecting the Messenians, so was it useful for Critias' minority clique in not only gaining control over Theramenes' majority but also in obtaining aid from Sparta. As a result of this plan, Critias brought about a serious split among the Athenians when he dared to carry out his severe policy. 3)Recovery of radical democracy Athenians were forced to experience a serious internal division in the course of their efforts to cope with the loss of their empire by changing their constitution. The most important task for the Athenian statesmen after such serious internal division being the restoration of concordance among the Athenian citizens, the issue of changing the constitution had to be left unsettled for a while. Therefore, radical democracy was restored in 403 B.C., not because it was the best alternative for Athens in attempting to adjust to the loss of her empire, but because the Athenians, for the purpose of internal order, could no longer afford to change their constitution at all. Behind Aristotle's overevaluation of Theramenes, there lies the figure of 4th century Athens in the throes of such grave problems.
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  • Kyoko Yamanaka
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 974-1002,1070-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    The main aim of this essay is to examine the characteristics of the political strength of the Imagawa family, Sengoku Daimyo of Suruga and Totomi Provinces, by inquiring into the land surveys (kenchi) which it carried out in the late 16th century. The author examines the land surveys of the Imagawa from two dimensions : from their scope -how broadly the survey could cover the land at one time -and this depth -how thoroughly the lord could survey the territory. With respect to the scope of the surveys, examining critically the views put forth by Mr. Arimitsu Yugaku in his essay in the journal, Nihonshi Kenkyu #138 (Jan. 1974), the author concludes that the surveys covered much wider areas than his local theory permits, and that his attempt to explain the motivation of the surveys from the content of the first article of the Imagawa Kana Mokuroku (the Imagawa family code), which provides guidelines for local lords concerning the conditions under which they could force customary cultivators to quit their tenancies in favor of cultivators who would pay higher rents, is itself in error. As to the depth of the surveys, the author investigates both their form and contents. She concludes that: 1)the surveys were not merely redigested reports from local land lords, but were actually carried out in a positive manner, including on-the-spot inquiries by Imagawa functionaries. 2)the surveys, by calculating the incomes from a strip of land -nengu (tribute) and kajishi (additional rents)- in terms of currency (kanmon), and by unifying these incomes into a monetary tax assessment system, represent a certain thoroughness which, while not directly related to "the abolishment of saku-ai" (those intermediary sub-rents abolished by Hideyoshi's surveys), can clearly be interpreted as a foreshadowing that the Imagawa would soon put an end to the multi-strata shiki-system characteristic of Japan's medieval period. With the help of an examination of commercial policies of the Imagawa, the author concludes that the Sengoku Daimyo represents an epoch-making type of political power, a power which grew by bringing under its span of control new areas heretofore out of the reach of the locally based lords (zaichi ryoshu) of the previous period ; and it is in this sense that she is able to see a Kinsei-type political power born, out of the chusei period.
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  • Mizuo Ono
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1003-1027
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • S. Ishii
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1028-1034
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • K. Sugiyama
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1034-1040
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1041-1042
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1043-1044
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1045-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (160K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1046-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (172K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1047-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (154K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1048-1049
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (263K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1049-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (146K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1050-1051
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1052-1068
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages 1069-1072
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages App1-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 89 Issue 6 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 20, 1980
    Released: October 05, 2017
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