SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 90 , Issue 12
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages Cover1-
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages Cover2-
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Kikushi Hon-iden
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1747-1784,1866-
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    What kind of title a ruler (monarch) took is an important matter to show the characrer of a given state. The fact that the Ritsuryo-state of Japan in eighth century was based on the Chinese constitutional system and that the monarch at that time took a special title 'Tenno' (天皇, lit. ten=heaven, no=empror) should be remarked. By means of the inscription on the iron sword which was discovered recently in Sakitama-Inariyama, an old mound, we see that a monarch of Japan in fifth and sixth century was called 'Daio' 大王. The change from 'Daio' to 'Tenno' was made after seventh century according to the international negotiation with China. Therefore it seems to be sure that the name of 'Tenno' came from Chinese term. If it is true, from which Tenno of China Japanese governor took its name? And for what did he adopt the title 'Tenno'? To answer these questions, I tried to consider the thought background of the motive in this paper. Among the past studies on Tenno, Sokichi Tsuda's paper 'Tenno-ko' is a representative one. In this paper, he told that 'Tenno' had two meanings : one is the Divine Being from a point of astrological view, the other a fictitious character's name as an emperor from a view point of superhuman being with divine power. Each meaning is mainly based on the religious concept implying a metaphorical meaning of a monarch. There is a recent opinion, by Shigeru Watanabe and Haruyuki Tono, that Japanese usage is bound to that of 'T'ien-huang' 天皇 and 'T'ien-hou' 天后 used in the reign of Kao-tuung 高宗 in T'ang. There is also Yukihisa Yamao's opinion that a title of 'Tenno' which unified separated functions of T'ien-tzu 天子 and Huang-ti, 皇帝 was newly created in the reign of Tenji, but I cannot follow him. I make much of the siginificance of the establishment of 'Tenno' as a title of a monarch, but I cannot follow the view that a title of 'T'ien-huang' in the reign of Kao-tsung brought forth its adoption in Japan directly. Because T'ien-huang in the reign of Kao-tsung did not mean to strengthen the right of the monarch at all, but, on the contrary, to rationalize the direct imperial rule of Tse-t'ien-wu-hou 則天武后. And it may be said that a title of a monarch which was based on Huang 皇 as well as Tenno did not exist at all in China befofe T'ang. For example, T'ai-shang-huang 太上皇 was a dignified title for the monarch after his abdication or demise. In An-p'ing-hsien-wang Fu ch'uan 安平獻王誤孚伝 (Chin shu 晋書) 'T'ien-huang, T'ien-huang-chih-hou' 天皇・天皇之后 was used with a meaning of a dignified title for the past monarch. So I suppose that 'Tenno' at first had no clear meaning of a title of a monarch when the name came into Japan. Therefore I do not think the oldest date when the name was imported to Japan is bound to the first year of the Shang-yuan 上元 (674 A.D.) in the reign of Kao-tsung. In Suiko period when the first direct connection with Chinese title of a monach was made, the monarch called himself 'Tenshi (T'ien-tzu)' 天子 contrasting with a title 'Huang-ti' 皇帝 of China. This shows that Japanese side at that time accurately understood the title of a monarch of China. Taking these facts into consideration, I infer as follows : Till the end of seventh century a present ruler was called 'Tenshi 天子 '(Kotei 皇帝) as well as 'Daio' which was still used among the nation, and the past monarchs were called 'Tenno'. The name of 'Tenshi' means a very name of Chinese monarch, and at the same time, among the nations of Northeast Asia including the Japanese, the name means Ame-tarashi-hiko 阿毎多利思比弧 (Sui-shu 隋書), a noble man from the Heaven. While 'Tenno' in contrast with 'Tenshi', must be

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  • Akio Katayama
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1785-1801,1865-
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    From this paper which examines the questions of tur(u)k, toquz oruz and Chiu-hsing (九姓), the following conclusions have been drawn. 1)T'ieh-le (鉄勒) originally might be the trans-literation of tur(u)k, but to T'u-chueh (突厥, tur(u)k) the name tur(u)k could only refer to themselves, and they did not use the word tur(u)k to refer the group that the Chinese called T'ieh-le. The group name T'ieh-le had already disappeared before the period of the Second T'u-chueh Khanate (突厥第二可汗国). Therefore, it is impossible to find the original sound of T'ieh-le in the inscriptions of T'u-chueh. The Chinese name T'ieh-le which was used for the Turkic tribes excluding T'u-chueh was used in the above sense. 2)There were three expressions to refer to a confederation of T'ieh-le in China. They were Chiu-hsing (九姓), Chiu-hsing T'ieh-le (九姓鉄勒) and T'ieh-le Chiu-hsing (鉄勒九姓). Chiu-hsing literally is a translation of toquz oruz, and T'ieh-le which was added to Chiu-hsing in the letter two cases might have been an addition made by the Chinese. 3)Concerning the names of Chiu-hsing T'u-cueh (九姓突厥) and T'u-chueh Chiu-hsing (突厥九姓), only one case in which Chiu-hsing T'u-chueh appears is evidently an error for Chiu-hsing T'ieh-le, but all the other examples of Chiu-hsing T'u-chueh and T'u-chueh Chiu-hsing are not mistakes and should be read as they are. 4)Chiu-hsing which appears in the terms Chiu-hsing, Chiu-hsing T'ieh-le, T'ieh-le Chiu-hsing, Chiu-hsing preceding a particular tribe name (九姓+部族名) and Chiu-hsing Hui-ho (九姓回〓) should be considered as refering to a single group of Chiu-hsing. Therefore Chiu-hsing preceding a particular tribe name means a tribe belonging to Chiu-hsing and Chiu-hsing Hui-ho means Hui-ho belonging to Chiu-hsing. 5)There are two different sets of names of Chiu-hsing in "T'ang Hui-yao (唐会要)" and "Chiu T'ang-shu (旧唐書)". This paper shows that though the nine names of the Chiu-hsing in "T'ang Hui-yao" in the past were said to be the nine tribe names of the T'ieh-le, and different from the nine sub-tribe names of the Hui-ho in "Chiu T'ang-shu", I believe that both groups of Chiu-hsing should be regarded as the same ; one as tribe names and the other as tribe head surnames. This interpretation is supported by the Khotanese text of Stael-Holstein scroll. 6)The number of sub-tribes in the Hui-ho might have been ten and not nine.
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  • Y. Nagayama
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1802-1808
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • K. Ugawa
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1809-1816
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1817-1828
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1829-1830
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1830-1831
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (282K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1831-1832
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1832-1833
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (258K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1833-1834
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (252K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1834-1837
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (400K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1835-1837
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1738-1764
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1865-1868
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 1-9
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 5-1
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages Cover4-
    Published: December 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (41K)
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