SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 90 , Issue 1
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Shuichi Matsui
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 1-35,137-138
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    In this essay, on the investigation of the scale of peasant mulberry tree plantation during China's Ritsuryo period, the author states that about 50 trees constituted the average amount per household, whereas 100-200 indicated a fairly large landowner, and a 1000 level plantation was considerably rare. From these results the author concludes that the item of the Agricultural Law (田令) of 731 contained in the T'ung-tien (通典) which states that one row (畝) of mulberry trees on the land held in perpetuity (永業田) contained over 50 trees, is not at all realistic, and therefore that the unit, "per row" (毎畝), is not applicable in this case. For the peasants working equally apportioned lands (均田) which had very low rates of kubunden (公分田) apportionment, it was the general practice to grow various grains and beans between the mulberry trees on the land held in perpetuity which had a higher percentage of kubunden apportionment. For this reason, the alleged scarcity of mulberry trees on lands held in perpetuity really poses no problem for such peasants. With respect to sericulture, spring sericulture was the established custom during this period, whereas summer silkworms, even though seen here and there in the Chiangnam (江南) region, were generally not raised. Summer sericulture is not an easy task in itself and, even though silk floss can be produced from the cocoons, the threads obtained are so brittle and weak that they could probably be used only for personal consumption in the weaver's household. For this reason, the assertion that summer sericulture was not only widespread but also the object of taxation cannot be proven. In the Southern Sung (南宋 1127-1279), summer sericulture became more popular to a certain degree in the regions of Chiangnam and Liangche (両浙). In contrast to this, in northern China under the Chin (金) Court (1115-1234), autumn sericulture began to be carried out, and this breakthrough may be considered as one important factor in the growth of sericulture-mulberry planting and silk-cotton weaving during China's later periods.
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  • Sho Yamada
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 36-66,136-137
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    The Fujiwara Magistrates of Takada-gun (高田郡) in the Province of Aki (安芸国) have been considered as a classic example indicating the movements of early period lords-in-residence (在地領主) ; and for this reason they have been studied extensively from many different angles. The present essay is a re-evaluation of this body of research in the light of the recent introduction by Goto Toshihiko of the Documents of Itsukushima (厳島文書) contained in the Choko-zassho (徴古雑抄) (cf. 『史学雑誌』88編11, 12号). Probably the greatest significance of introducing this document collection is that now we have a clear picture of the complete Fujiwara Magistrates of Takada-gun-related documents handed down by the Itsukushima Shrine to the beginning of the Meiji period, and therefore, we can now examine these documents in a more wholistic manner. In this essay the author examines the processes of three proprietorship commendations (所領寄進) which resulted in the Fujiwara Magistrates effectively relegating landholdings to the Itsukushima Shrine ; and, in so doing, identifies two separate lines of documents. Moreover, as a result of a separate examination of the line of documents which were involved in the first commendation, and were kept in the hands of the Fujiwara Magistrates, the author makes clear that the four most important items in this line were forgeries quite expertly composed in the late Heian period. Next, the author attempts to concisely reconstruct from the remaining items of both document lines the goings-on in the Fujiwara Magistrate holdings before and after the first and second commendations took place ; and thereby to ascertain not only when exactly the four forgeries were composed but also by what motive, in what background, and by whose order they were forged -all this in order to give an interpretation as to the meaning of the procedure of proprietorship commendation in the late Heian period.
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  • Shunzo Matsuzuka
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 67-88,135-136
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Thomas Spence has been considered as one of the most distinguished radicals or as a pioneer of socialist land-nationalization. However, these commonplace interpretations need re-examination from the viewpoints of both methodology and historical evidences, which have recently made remarkable developments. For the whole material as to Spence proves that he was not only concerned with the abolition of private property in land, but also with innovation of social relations at large, including constitution, economic system and culture. Spence argued that the innovation of society as realization of "a perfect whole" was to be brought about by millennialism. In this essay the author attempts to explain the relationship between millennialism and social reform movements in order to figure out more clearly the characteristics of Spence's thought and behaviour in his historical context. The five points of arguments are as follows : (1)Contemporaries were amazed to find a kind of utopia in Spence's plan (small republics based on parish corporations), but the same time they realized that his millennialism was fairly accepted to the people in the last decades of the 18th century. (2)Socialists in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries found out a pioneer of land-nationalization in Spence. (3)There happened a transition in interpretation of Spence from radicalism to millennialism in the present century. Until the middle of the century, Spence had been investigated by students of the English radicalism which remained within the framework of constitutionalism. It was one of the reasons why Spence as a whole was not examined. However, he began to be investigated from another viewpoint since the 1960s. For instance T.Knox in his recent article gave weight to "rational biblicism" or "local settings" of Spence. And also E.P.Thompson dug into the relationship between the social movements and the religious enthusiasm of Dissenters in their wider sense. (4)Studies of millennialism itself in recent years are full of suggestions. They have taken notice of two types of millennialists, pre-millennialists who believed Christ's Second Coming would precede the millennium and post-millennialists who thought the Second Advent would follow the millennium. Both of them seemed to overlap with radicalism. Post-millennialism as could be seen in Spence was more important as it took rational forms. (5)Historical documents of Spence, including his publications, manuscripts, tokens, etc., prove that Spence sought after more rational form of millennialism, by which he not only involved himself in radicalism, but also was able to be critical of it.
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  • T. Shimomukai
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 89-97
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • K. Yamada
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 97-106
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 107-108
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 108-109
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (252K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 109-110
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (212K)
  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 111-134
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages 135-138
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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