SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 90 , Issue 9
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Hiroshi Kurushima
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1339-1383,1480-
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Although bakuryo (estates directly controlled by Bakufu) lay scattered in many parts of the country and offered footholds on which Edo-bakufu founded its economical and military base, the study of bakuryo are far behind that of hanryo. Especially, positive studies on the structure of machinery in specific bakuryo except Shinshu and Koshu have rarely been attempted. The primary function of daikansho (the only government office set up in bakuryo) was to collect tax and it could not govern for itself, nor possess sufficient military power, not even police force. It can be said that daikansho had great limitation in its administrative power. However, until the fall of Edo-bakufu, the control of daikansho was very successful in almost all bakuryo except for Hita and Iwami which were occupied by other han as a result of the Choshu War. How was it made possible? Does it suggest that there existed some form of an intermediary administrative agency between daikansho and each village? These are the questions that the author has tried to answer by examining the role played by gunchusodai. The aim of the present article is to discuss the function and character of gunchusodai of Bittchu, who represented kumiaimura and acted for daikansho as an intermediary government machinery to facilitate its control. The period dealt with in this article is limited to the Choshu War (1864-67) and the author intends to illuminate the function of gunchusodai by putting an emphasis on how they recruited labor and supplied provisions during the war. At that period, in Bittchu bakuryo, there were gunchusodai in every kumiaimura which consisted of some ten villages within the same district. The office of gunchusodai was held and was alternated yearly by two or three shoya whose main duties were 1)to supervise collection of gunchuiriyo (expenditure for the district administration) such as overhead expenses for the maintenance of daikansho, the cost of shipping of rice paid as land tax and so on : and 2)to mediate communication between daikansho and villages by transmitting the order from daikansho or speaking for the village people. Its 'self-governing' character largely enabled gunchusodai to keep smooth administrative functions as a substitute machinery. The duties imposed on Bittchu bakuryo in the war was to supply the needs of the officers who, like ikusametsuke, were dispatched by Bakufu to a battle front and had to be fed, fuelled and have their horses refreshed. Labor force was raised from Bittchu bakuryo to feed them and to transport their equipment. It should be noted that, in spite of the crushing defeat of the Bakufu army, gunchu-sodai was very active to meet the expectations of Bakufu and discharged its duty to the last. This fact might testify that gun-chusodai, even at the closing stage of Edo-bakufu, was functioning very efficiently as intermediary administrative instrument.
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  • Masayoshi Fusejima
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1384-1412,1479-
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    (1)Aim (Introduction). There are far more studies of English, French and German urban history than those of Scandinavian in Japan. The aim of this article is to produce the subject matter in behalf of the discussion on mediaeval urban history of Europe by means of showing the investigative result of Bjarkeyjar rettr applied to Nidaros (Trondhjem), which was compiled in the 12th and 13th centuries. (2)Relation to Frostupingslog [ch. 1, (1)]. The document describes Nidaros as 'kaupang' and its law effective area as 'takamarki' (§173). The area covering Nidaros is geographically called 'herao' which stands under the jurisdiction of Frostupingsrettr. Inquiring into the law relation of these two areas (§§2, 43, 102), the author can not find no superiority or inferiority between them (cf., Frostupingslog §X-32, K.M.Haakonssφns Landslov §V-16, K.M.Haakonssφns Bylov §V-16.). (3)Meetings [ch. 1, (2)]. Moots (mot) are held by the chief executive officer (gjaldkeri) and the house-holders (husfastir menn) who stay over three months (e.g., §§6, 14, 18, 24, 25, 26, 34, 44, 47, 52, 108, 135, 173). In addition the law-assembly (logping) (§9) and the weapon-assembly (vapnaping) (§137) are also held. The latter is based on the residents' duty of self-defence against the enemy invading Nidaros (§25). Assemblies (ping) are also held in many cases (§§72, 98b, 144, 145, 157, 158, 163). Administration in general is thus performed, and they enjoy the autonomy. The residents are classified in some strata between the slave (praell) and the superior yeoman (hauldrmaor) (§§47, 127, 140, 142, 145, 162) [ch. 2, (1)]. (4)Character [ch. 2, (2) (3)]. The citizen is described as 'boejarmenn', and the word 'bondi' is also used as its synonym. It can be surmised that 'bondi' are engaged not only in agriculture and cattle-raising, but also in forestry, fishery and hunting (seals) (§§60, 63, 138, 144, 146, 158). It can therefore be judged that Nidaros has agricultural, fishing, and so forth characters. She also has a character as a commercial and port town (§§4, 6, 7, 107, 108, 153-4, 168-77). (5)Social background [ch. 3, (1) (2)]. Outlawry is condemned in many cases (e.g. belief in paganism) (§§2, 10, 12, 14, 33-5, 46, 51, 65, 69, 118, 128, 131, 152), but in fact it can be atoned without punishment in many cases (§§72, 101. cf., §§147, 168. exception : §§13, 18, 28, 50). Thefts concerning agriculture, cattle-raising and so on meant violations of private ownership (§§112, 118-9, 147-8). Land (land, joro) is indeed under private ownership, but 'eign' (§§63, 146) is under possession, or holding. Land (eign) is intended to be transformed under private ownership (land, joro) on one hand, but the aim is also regulated on the other hand, and of the promotion and the regulation stand side by side. (6)Conclusion. Nidaros is an autonomous community with a complex (agricultural, fishing, cattle-raising, commercial) character, and also a mediaeval society preserving ancient features.
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  • T. Obayashi
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1413-1418
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • S. Sakai
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1419-1428
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • S. Shirakawa
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1428-1434
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • A. Nagazumi
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1434-1440
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1441-1442
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1442-1444
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1444-1445
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (257K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1444-1445
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (257K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1445-1446
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1446-1447
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Download PDF (223K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1448-
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1449-1476
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages 1477-1480
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1981 Volume 90 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1981
    Released: October 05, 2017
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