SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 92 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Fumio Takuma
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 1-39,135-133
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In dieser Untersuchung geht es im wesentlichen um folgende Fragen : Wie faBten die Kodifikatoren die Rechtsunsicherheit in der preuBischen Monarchie bei der Kodifikation auf? Und warum bejahten sie positiv die ,,uneingeschrankte Monarchie", obwohl sie den rechtsstaatlichen Gedanke befurworteten? Um diese Probleme zu klaren, versuche ich folgende Punkte zu untersuchen. 1.Die Grundkonzeption der Kodifikation des ,,burgerlichen Gesetzbuches" : die Bedeutung der fehlenden Trennung von offentlichem-und Privatrecht. Zuerst habe ich danach gefragt, warum das burgerliche Gesetzbuch als das umfassende, die offentlichen Rechtsverhaltnisse der Burger enthaltende Gesetzbuch entstanden war. Damals war es den Kodifikatoren selbstverstandlich, daB ein burgerliches Gesetzbuch keine Konstitution enthalten konnte. Aber die Rechtsverhaltnisse zwischen Staatsoberhaupt und seinen Burgern waren dabei nicht ausgeschlossen. Im AnschluB an damalige Privatrechtsauffassung dachte Svarez, daB Materien, die unmittelbare Folgen fur subjektive Rechte einer Privatperson ergeben konnten, auch dann in das "Privatgesetzbuch" gehorten, wenn sie ihren Ursprung in eigentlich offentlich-rechtlichen Verhaltnissen hatten. Bei ihm befand sich keine klare Scheidung zwischen offentlichen- und privatrechtlichen Bestimmungen, indem er Gemeinwohlbindungen auch in die Zivilgesetze verlegte und so Zivil-und Polizeigesetze sich uberschneiden lieBen. Von dieser Grundhaltung aus war das Allgemeine Landrecht konzipiert. Solche umfassende Privatrechtsauffassung als ganze Lebensordnung der Burger war bezeichnend fur die preuBischen Justizbeamten und solche Auffassung zeigte ihre rechtliche Denkweise und zugleich auch ihre politische Stellungnahme. 2.Die Stellung des Beamtenstandes im Staatsrecht und die Entstehung der Oberschicht des Burgertums : der Hintergrund der preuBischen Aufklarung. In diesem Abschnitt analysierte ich die Bestimmungen der Stellung des Beamtenstandes im Allgemeinen Landrecht. Das Beamtenbild als der allgemeinem Wohl dienende Stand und Stellungsgarantie des Beamten waren charakteristisch fur das Zeitalter der Aufklarung. Ich glaube, daB die Kodifikatoren den Beamtenstand einem staatsrechtlichen Bestandteil der preuBischen Monarchie zu machen versuchten. Zivilbeamten in der zweiten Halfte des 18. Jahrhunderts stammten zu nicht geringerem Teil aus der Oberschicht des Burgertums, des ,,eximierten" Burgertums. Dieser durch den absolutistischen Staat geschaffene privilegierte Gerichtsstand stellte die soziale Grundlage der preuBischen Aufklarung dar. Ihr StaatsbewuBtsein und ihre Staatsorientierung lassen sich aus ihrem sozialen Charakter erklaren. Dieses Burgertum war damals Haupttraiger der offentlichen Meinung in PreuBen. Und Svarez versuchte die Gesetzgebung auf der burgerlichen Meinung basieren zu lassen. Somit war die Kodifikation zum Teil das Produkt dieser burgerlichen Offentlichkeit. 3.Die Trennung der Justiz von der Verwaltung und die rechtliche Kontrolle der Verwaltung durch die Justiz : zur Entstehung des Ressortreglements von 1797. Wenn die Kodifikatoren den rechtsstaatlichen Gedanke ohne unmittelbare Teilnahme der Burger an der Gesetzgebung verwirklichen muBten, so war die Ressortsbeziehung von Justiz und Verwaltung (,,Polizei") ein sehr wichtiges Problem fur die Justizbeamten, um Rechte der Burger gegen Verwaltungswillkur zu schutzen. Dabei war das zentrale Problem die Beseitigung der Kammerjustiz. So verfolgte ich die Entstehungsgeschichte des Ressortreglement von 1797, die die Trennung der Justiz von der Verwaltung und damit die Beseitigung der Kammerjustiz zunachst in Neu-OstpreuBen verwirklichte. Mit der Untersuchung dieser Probleme habe ich die Rolle und Eigentum-lichkeit der Aufklarung und der Beamtenschaft und dadurch den geschichtlichen Charakter der preuBischen Monarchie in dieser Zeit herausgearbeitet. In dieser Beziehung durfte man wohl von einem ,,burokratischen Konstitutionalismus" sprechen.
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  • Koichi Yamauchi
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 40-66,133-132
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The chiao-ssu 郊祀 festival is a ceremony to worship 't'ien-ti' 天地 (heaven and earth), performed by the Chinese emperor in the suburb of the capital. This system of chiao-ssu, which was based on the traditional 't'ien-ming' 天命 (heavenly decree) thought, was established during the Han dynasty when Confucianism formed a connection with the state authority, and thereafter was adopted by the successive dynasties. The style of the ceremony have been changed throughout history, according to the characteristics of each dynasty. In the beginning of the Northern Sung period, the T'ang system of chiao-ssu was inherited without change, but the system went through considerable changes in the course of the Northern Sung period. The purpose of this paper is to survey the changes in the system of chiao-ssu during this period. In the system called "K'ai-pao t'ung-li 開宝通礼", which was established immediately after the founding of the dynasty, the T'ang system was adopted without change, but later, the system was changed gradually. For example, by the last years of Jen-tsung 仁宗, the scale of the ceremony was enlarged, and the number of gods worshiped increased, especially in the case where the emperor himself performed the ceremony. In the Shen-tsung 神宗 era, the restoration of the ancient ceremony was advocated, and consequently the T'ang system was revised completely. Moreover, the large-scale ceremony which had been performed up to the end of the Jen-tsung era was replaced with a more simple one. Since the Che-tsung 哲宗 era, the dispute between Hsin-fa tang 新法党 (the reform party) and Chiu-fa tang 旧法党 (the conservative party) continued to struggle over the reformation in the Shen-tsung era, and the chiao-ssu System, which was closely connected with this dispute, changed according to the alteration of political power.
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  • Tsuguo Yasuda
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 66-90,132-131
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Essentially the Buddhist term, kanjin 勧進 refers to the fact of "pointing the human race into the direction of Good by encouraging the people to follow the way of the Buddha." However, in Japan from the 12th century, this same term came to signify more and more "the solicitation of donations in the form of money and goods for the construction and repair of religious buildings and images on the premise that such works are the root of Good and the source of Grace." At first, such soliciting was carried out by certain holy men (hijiri 聖) or saints (shonin 上人), buddhist monks who would either canvass door to door or accost travellers on the highways and byways in their efforts to amass funds and convert the people to the Way. However, by the end of the 13th century such solicitation came to be collected forcibly through permits issued by the Imperial Court and warrior governments in such forms a hut taxes, docking fees and barrier tolls ; that is, kanjin became a part of the medieval system of tax assessment. In this essay, the author takes up the problem of a Yamato provincial tax levy called tsuchiuchi-yaku 土打役, originally corvee donated or levied for preparing clay used in the production of temple roof tiles, and is able to clarify the following two points : 1)that this tax levy originated with the religious donation soliciting carried out by monks of the Ritsu 律 sect who had been in close contact with the common people of Yamato, and in and around 1280 this levy became a tax uniformally imposed throughout the province. 2)that those of yeoman commoner status (hyakusho 百姓), who came to share the burden of this land-based tax with shoen proprietors (jishu 地主), were actually the cultivation right holders (sakushu-shiki shoyusha 作主職所有者) of the land subject to that levy. The widespread use of the more bureaucratic sounding term, sakushu-shiki (ownership of the rights to cultivation), in place of the simple term for cultivator, Sakute (作手), occurs in the historical literature just after the establishment of that provincial levy called tsuchiuchi-yaku. This fact, when juxtaposed to the previous two points, leads one to believe that there existed a close relationship between the institutionalization of religious donation solicitation, that is, its establishment as a uniform provincial tax levy, and the widespread use of the bureaucratic term for the ownership of cultivation rights (sakushu-shiki). In other words, the medieval state, through the custom of religious solicitation, was able to place within its public taxation system those holding cultivatorships (sakute) under the status of yeoman commoner (hyakusho), and it is because of this fact that cultivators came to take on the more official sounding title of holder of the right to land cultivation.
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  • Seido Hattori
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 91-96
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 97-99
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 100-103
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 103-104
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 104-105
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (262K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 105-106
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (240K)
  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 107-129
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 130-
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 131-135
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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