SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 92 , Issue 10
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Hidemasa Kokaze
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1567-1601,1711-
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper deals with the subject which will clarify the realities of the expansion of the Japanese regular lines in East Asian Sea area from the late 19th century, particularly after the Russo-Japanese War, and trace how the international traffic system which founded the base for the advance into Asia during the period forming the Japanese Imperialism was formed. The period after the Russo-Japanese War marked a very important epoch, for the Japanese shipping business achieved the independence which otherwise would have been directly under the threat of international strife in the circumstances of the imperialist world. It became manifest in two phases ; one, strengthening the international competitive ability by improving the ship-quality in the ocean lines based on the native ship-building industry (v., separate article) : two, forming the East Asian traffic system which combined the near-seas routes, the colonial and the home railways. The regular routes in the near-seas were opened with a great subscription corresponding to the Japanese foreign advance policy after the Sino-Japanese War. But these routes had not been united and scarecely related each other. Then after the Russo-Japanese War, while each route was expanded and unified, together with harbor improvements and railway constructions, they formed a new traffic system. Firstly, in Taiwan (台湾), the Japan and China routes were repleted by the companies heading Osaka Shosen Kaisha (大阪商船) which drove away British steamers and Chinese junks from China-Taiwan route, then completed a new traffic system the improving Jilong (基隆) and Gaoxiong (高雄) harbors and constructing railways running through the island. And in Korean Peninsula, Chosen Yusen (朝鮮郵船) established in 1912 improved the coastal service. Also the railway system connecting with home railways and South Manchuria Railway (南満州鉄道) was constructed, and Pusan (釜山) and Inchon (仁川) harbors were improved, so the traffic system extending over all peninsula was formed. In the result the reformation of the goods circulation was accelerated and the colonization of these areas, that is their subordination to the Japanese national economical circle, was promoted. Secondary, in Mainland China, in the Yangtze valley (長江流域), Nisshin Kisen (日清汽船), affiliation of four Japanese companies, was established in 1907, and strengthened their international competitive abilities and extended their power widely. Also in "Manchuria (満州)", both Dalian (大連) and Vladivostok routes were opened and each was connected with South Manchuria Railway or East China Railway (東清鉄道) and formed advance routes from both directions. Thus the transporting base for Japanese advance into China in main and sub axes was strengthened and the invasion into the continent was accerelated. Thirdly, these traffic system using Jilong and Shanghai (上海) as their jointing points was connected to the ocean lines. Then the international traffic and communication with Siberia Railways was actualized and it joined to the Conference of International communication via Siberia in 1910, so it was joined to Europe by land. Therefore it was joined in the global network of transportation. Thus, East Asian traffic system was founded in the early 1910s. This supplied the bases for Japan to put forward its colonialism and the advance into the Continent, as the result of the victory in the Russo-Japanese War, and assured the road towards the last Imperialism.
    Download PDF (2653K)
  • Yoko Nagahara
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1602-1621,1709-
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Wenn man auf das System der deutschen Kolonialherrschaft einzugehen versucht, so muB ein besonderes Augenmerk notwendig auch der Untersuchung der Siedlerschaft gelten. Diese namlich wirkte in doppelter Hinsicht als Vermittler : zwischen der Kolonialregierung und den Eingeborenen zum einen, und zwischen dem Mutterland und der Kolonie zum anderen. Die Siedler in Deutsch-Sudwestafrika trieben Viehzucht, dazu gehorenden Handel und Handwerk. Die finanziellen Unterstutzungen dafur erhielten sie von deutschen und englischen Kolonialunternehmungen, den Grund und Boden durch staatliche Beschlagnahme von den Afrikanern. Der Aufstand, der von 1904 bis 1907 andauerte, vernichtete die Pflanzungen und versetzte der Kolonialwirtschaft einen schweren Schlag. Der Entschadigungsanspruch der Siedler gegenuber der Regierung und dem Reichstag wurde nur in begrenzter Weise akzeptiert. Diese Haltung der Regierung resultierte nicht aus Gleichgultigkeit gegenuber dem Wiederaufbau der Kolonie, sondern aus der Auffassung, daB die Kolonialunternehmen, die zumeist von einigen GroBbanken des Mutterlandes unterschtutzt wurden, diesen Wiederaufbau ubernehmen und finanzieren sollten. Nach den Diamantenfunden im Jahre 1908 siedelten viele Deutschen in die Kolonie uber in der Erwartung, am kunftigen Gewinn Anteil zu haben. In der Tat machten jedoch ausschlieBlich die Kolonialunternehmungen einen entsprechenden Gewinn. Auf den Pflanzungen hatten nur noch wenige Siedler Hoffnung, mit diesem Betrieb allein ihren Unterhalt zu verdienen, denn eine Grundbesitzerweiterung wurde ihnen nicht erlaubt. Um die die kolonialunternehmungen bevorzugende Wirtschaftspolitik zu andern, erhoben die Siedler nunmehr Anspruch auf Verwirklichung eines Selbstver waltungsrechts. Dies wurde jedoch nur auf der Ebene der "Gemeinde" zugesagt. Darin spiegelt sich deutlich die Tatsache wieder, daB die GroBunternehmungen und die groBeren Siedler zusammen gegenuber den mittleren und kleineren Siedlern nach wie vor das politische Stimmrecht fur sich monopolisierten. Bei den Versuchen zum Ausgleich der Gegensatze zwischen Kolonialunternehmungen und Siedlern spielte im Mutterland der Interessenverband "Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft" eine erhebliche Rolle. Diese Gesellschaft, die die Interessen beider Seiten geschickt miteinander verband, machte die stark rassistischen Vorstellungen der Siedler zu einer wichtigen ideologischen Stutze ihrer Politik. Trotz ihrer inneren Differenzierung und ihrer abhangigen Stellung zu den Kolonialunternehmungen trat die Siedlerschaft als Ganzes gegenuber der afrikanischen Bevolkerung als "Herrschaft" auf. Dieses SelbstbewuBtsein der Siedlerschaft entsprach den Herrschaftsplanen des deutschen Imperialismus.
    Download PDF (1874K)
  • Noritaka Umezu
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1622-1649
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2524K)
  • Takashi Mikuriya
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1650-1660
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1139K)
  • Tokuji Kasahara
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1660-1670
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1145K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1671-1672
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (117K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1673-1674
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (271K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1674-1675
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (282K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1675-1676
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (276K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1676-1677
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (272K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1677-1679
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (360K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1679-1680
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1680-1681
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (256K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1681-1682
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (258K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1682-1683
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (261K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1683-1684
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (263K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1684-1685
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (220K)
  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1686-1708
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1664K)
  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 1709-1712
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (234K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages App1-
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (74K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages Cover4-
    Published: October 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
feedback
Top