SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 92 , Issue 11
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Kimitoshi Moritani
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1713-1752,1848-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Since 377 B.C., foreign policy of Athens was pursued on the basis of her Second Sea-League and failed by the defeat of the Social War in 355 B.C.. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Athenian politics and diplomacy in this period through the concept of political groups, and to locate them in the Greek political history in the first half of the fourth century B.C.. In Athens, in this period, there were three political groups whose leaders were Kallistratos, Timotheos, and Aristophon respectively. Kallistratos-group pursued the dual hegemony policy of Athens-Sparta, and maintained the friendly relations with Sparta even after Athenian sea-hegemony was recovered. But Spartan defeat in the battle of Leuctra and the rise of Thebes destroyed the ground of this policy, and brought about the downfall of Kallistratos. Then both Timotheos and Aristophon-groups positively promoted the expansion policy of sea-hegemony after mid-360's, which caused the transformation of the Sea-League into the type of the Empire in the fifth century B.C.. The struggle for leadership between these two groups resulted in the triumph of Aristophon-group. But this expansion policy also failed by the defeat of the Social War in 355 B.C.. By the way, it was King's Peace concluded in 386 B.C. which formed the framework for Greek politics in the first half of the fourth century B.C.. King's Peace was a treaty in which all Greek cities took part under the authority of Persian King, and guaranteed the freedom and autonomy of each city. Kallistratos-group built the Sea-League in conformity with King's Peace and maintained Athenian sea-hegemony within its framework. Then in 360's, Persian Empire was weakened by inner rebellions and Great King lost his authority over Greece. It was this change of the balance of power between Greece and Persia which enabled Timotheos- and Aristophon-groups to carry out the expansion policy beyond the framework of King's Peace and to recover the Empire. In result, political groups of Athens in the first half of the fourth century conflicted with each other for leadership concerning the sea-hegemony which was essential to the existence of Athens. And the political situation in Greece, especially the relations with Persia, together with this political situation in Athens, gave a direct impact on the recovery of the Athenian Empire.
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  • Nobuhiro Shimomura
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1753-1766,1847
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In March 1575 (the 3rd year of Tensho) Nobunaga Oda issued the moratorium (Tokusei), by which the court nobles (Kuge) and the priest-princes (Monzeki) could cancel all their debts and recover their lands which they had owned, in order to help their financial state overall. And he expected that it would have a good effect if he ordered the creditors to give up their bonds issue the letters to cancel debts or the letters of debts. Though regarding the cancellation of their debts, the moratorium worked considerably, about the recovery of their land, it didn't have much effect because of the creditor's resistances, and it complicated the state of their claims rather than clearing. Consequently we must agree to that the moratorium didn't achieve its purpose. But in November of the same year, Nobunaga Oda gave the court nobles and priest-princes fiefs in Yamashiro province, subject to "Shinchi" no matter wether they had owned them before or not, and "Zikimu', that they directly ordered them. Thus the Oda regime changed its new policy against the Imperial Court (Chotei), So that it could make the financial state of the court nobles and priest-princes stable.
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  • Yoshiki Iechika
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1767-1789,1846-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Research papers on the Formosa Incident, which was the first dispatch of troops for modern Japan, have been numerously published from the viewpoint of the diplomatic history. I don't have anything to add to these fromer achievements. But, on the problem how the dispatch was enforced, there seem not a few gross misunderstandings in the former studies. I especially take up next two points for examination. Firstly, it is said that the leaders who propelled the dispatch of troops to Formosa were Toshimichi Okubo, Shigenobu Okuma and Tsugumichi Saigo. And there were basically not any opponents among them. Secondly, Takamitsu Kido and the Choshu faction consistently objected the dispatch by Okubo from the consideration of the precedence of the domestic affairs, and Kido resigned from Sangi for that reason. These opinions are widely accepted. But when we investigate these points deeply, we come to the problem how we understand the policy of the Okubo regime toward Asia. On this point, the diplomacy of Soejima who aimed to progress rights of Japan, is said to try not only the possession of Formosa but the conquest of the whole East Asia. Former researches connected this with the dispatch of troops to Formosa and by doing so tried to make clear the policy of the Okubo regime toward Asia and its nature which was represented by its opinion to conquer Korea (or the operation of power politics such as of Prussia). Against these opinions, I came to the conclusion as a result of my own study of historical facts. The dispatch of troops to Formosa in April 1874, was different from the original plan, which was to send an envoy in order to punish and pacify natives in Formosa, who had hurt the people of Loochoo Islands and Oda Prefecture. This was decided on the proposal by Okubo and Okuma, which Kido and the Choshu faction had consented. But, while Okubo were in Kyushu to deal with the revolt in Saga, Tsugumichi Saigo was troubled by discontented Samurais of Kagoshima, and he volunteered to be the governer of Formosa. The policy to dispatch the troops to Formosa turned accordingly to aim at the possession and colonization of it. The Choshu faction regarded this conversion as the scheme to pacify the samurais of Kagoshima, so they started the opposition vigorously. Thus, Kido and the Choshu faction objected the plan of Tsugumichi Saigo but not the original plan of Okubo. Differently from the accepted theory, there was not a basic discrepancy of opinions between Okubo and Kido, the Choshu faction. As Okubo only intended to dispatch an envoy, there was a great difference in thought between Okubo and Soejima, who aimed at the possession of Formosa. So the policy of Okubo cannot easily be connected with power politics like those of Prussia and the opinion of the conquer Korea. On the contrary, the policy of Okubo toward Formosa intended to compromise the former Sangis, who resigned as the result of the political change in the 6th year of Meiji, and discontented Samurais, and rather represented the weekness of Okubo regime. It is after the negotiation with Shin-dynasty succeeded miraculously, then Okubo regime exercised a kind of power politics, still limited to the policy toward Ryukyu.
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  • Akio Watanabe
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1790-1796
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Shigeru Ikuta
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1796-1800
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Shigeru Hosokawa
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1800-1808
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1809-1810
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1810-1811
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1811-1812
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1812-1813
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1813-1814
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1814-1815
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1815-1816
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1816-1817
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1818-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1819-1844
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1845-1848
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages App1-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: November 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
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