SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 92 , Issue 9
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (24K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (24K)
  • Isamu Okayasu
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1421-1452,1565-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper I studied the seat-orders in the records of ancient China and then thought about the meaning of the emperor's facing west. Finally I came to a conclusion as follows. 1.The seat facing south or north between the sovereign and his subject (in this occasion the sovereign usually takes north seats) is a symbol of absolute relation of domination-obedience. No one but the sovereign can hardly take a seat facing south. Therefore, when the someone takes a seat facing south, it means that there is a relation of the ruler and the ruled among the present company at the meeting. 2.At the private meeting, there exists fundamentally different seat-order, that is, facing east and west. The meaning is clearly different from the above one. This occurs between host and guest, among families or teacher and pupil. The seats facing west are for hosts, the youngers, and pupils, who are inferior in the company. Then, the seats facing east are for guests, the olders and teachers, who stand higher. In the case of taking all-side seats, the order stands from facing east, south, north, and west. 3.Through understanding the difference between facing south or north and facing east or west, I thought over the emperor's power during and after the Han dynasty. Thus, I could find that the emperor, who is thought to give priority to the relation of domination-obedience in every respect, in fact, did not always take the seat facing south. When he was with the empress dowager 皇太后, the Supreme Lords 上公 (the grand tutor 太師・the senior tutor 太傅・the junior tutor 太保), the San-lao 三老 or the Wu-keng 五更 (titles given to elders who were honored by the emperor), he did not seat facing south. i)The empress dowager was never treated as a subject, not only at a private meeting but also at an official meeting (at least in 'Lin-chao-cheng-chih' 「臨朝称制」), and she could meet the emperor, sitting facing east. ii)The Supreme Lords, the council of the emperor, were in the post of Pu-chen-chin-li 不臣之礼 in the Later Han Dynasty. iii)The San-lao and the Wu-keng were treated with respect, given seats facing east or south, for the emperor had to teach people the order of the young and the old by Yang-lao-li 養老礼. When there was a strong relation of teacher and pupil, the San-Lao took a seat facing south, while the emperor took a seat facing north as a pupil. In this way, while the emperor was ruling he took a seat facing south as a symbol of power, and when he treated some subjects with respect, he took a lower-rank seat for himself. So, in such a case there was no domination-obedience relation between the emperor and his subjects. In other words, it is understood that the emperor recognized them as 'not subject' 「不臣」. The supreme Lords, the San-lao, and the Wu-keng were not the rank which threatened the emperor's position, but by making such a system, the dynasty seems to have dealt successfully with both domestic and foreign policy without falling into logical dilemma, which happened in following crises ; the change of dynasties, the invasion of different neighbour races and so on.
    Download PDF (2566K)
  • Fumiaki Sasaki
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1453-1473,1564-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this article, the present writer studied the process of founding the Hyojo system, political organization of the Kamakura Shogunate. Through research and examination of the "Hyojoshu" (評定衆), he made clear the following points : (1)Acording to "Azuma Kagami" (吾妻鏡) and the "Kanto Hyojo Den" (関東評定伝), the foundation of the Hyojoshu has been usually said to be in 1225, but this view seems to be impossible, because the section of the "Kanto Hyojo Den" up to 1231 is considered to be made up by its author. The present writer, however, regards the section of the above work after 1232 reliable. (2)The Hyojo system started in 1199 with the grant of substantial power to examin lawsuits and the function to drop them. Besides the Hyojo system came to have various political powers and functions gradually through the reigns of Minamoto-no-Yoriie (源頼家), Minamoto-no-Sanetomo (源実朝), and Hojo Masako (北条政子), and became an important system. But we must notify the fact that even during these periods, the power to make final decision for these matters belonged to the shogun. (3)The Hyojo system changed a great deal under the rule of Fujiwara-no-Yoritsune (藤原頼経) after he became shogun in 1225 : (i)The Hyojosho (評定所) was set up, and the Hyojp system as an organization became more independent than before. (ii)Judicial and political issues came to be decided at the Hyojosho. Thus the Hyojo system came to hold, both in name and reality, an important place in the Kamakura Shogunate. The power to make final decision on those issues, however, did not belong to the Hyojoshu but rather to the Regent (執権). In other words, the Hyojoshu can be said to have been an advisory council for the Regent. Though decisions at the Hyojosho have been thought to be made according to the will of the majority of the Hyojoshu, including the Regent by now, the present writer thinks that the reform of 1225 in fact raised the status of the Regent substantially.
    Download PDF (2053K)
  • Claude Nicolet, Takashi tr.by-Tamura
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1474-1483
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1016K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1484-1512
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2982K)
  • Hidemichi Ota
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1513-1518
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (629K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1518-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (57K)
  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1519-1524
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (720K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1525-1529
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (563K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1529-1530
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (263K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1530-1531
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (266K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1531-1532
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (226K)
  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1533-1563
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2160K)
  • Type: Article
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages 1564-1566
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (192K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (84K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 92 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1983
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
feedback
Top