La "maladie mortelle" (mard al-maut) est l'institution qui limite certains actes juridiques de celui atteint de la maladie qui fait craindre et qui entraine actuellement sa mort (la maladie mortelle) pour proteger les interets de ses creanciers et de ses heritiers. Pour nous borner aux dispositions regissant des rapports entre lui et ses heritiers, ses liberalites sont soumises aux limitations apportees au testament dont les plus caracteristiques sont les suivantes ; le total des legs ne peut exceder le tiers du patrimoine a moins que tous les heritiers n'y consentent et un heritier ne peut etre legataire a moins que tous les autres coheritiers n'y consentent. Quant a la repudiation, le mari atteint de la maladie mortelle ne peut pas desheriter sa femme par elle malgre la validite d'une telle repudiation. L'ancienne theorie avant la formation des ecoles juridiques au II^e H./VIII^e siecle considerait les restrictions susdites comme resultats de succession avant la mort du malade. Malik b. Anas (m. 179/795), qui est fidele a l'ancienne doctrine, regarde les droits des heritiers comme ceux sur "quote-part de succession" (mirath), et, bien qu'il n'admette pas positivement le partage de patrimoine avant la mort du de cujus, il lui constitue le tiers de ses biens et leur en les deux tiers comme leurs propres biens. C'est de la que les heritiers doivent vicier sa disposition qui empieterait sur leurs droits a l'instant meme. Il en resulte aussi qu'ils peuvent en recuperer la quote-part de l'objet auquel s'attachent leurs droits. L'ecole hanafite, fondee par Abu Hanifa (m. 150/767), est plus loin de l'ancienne theorie. En rigueur, on ne peut savoir si une maladie est la maladie mortelle qu'apres la mort du de cujus. C'est pourquoi les docteurs de cette ecole prescrivent que les droits des heritiers ne peuvent s'excercer qu'apres qu'il est mort. Dans ce cas, ils annulent retroactivement l'acte a titre gratuit qui viole leurs droits. Mais comme les docteurs le considerent comme une fois validement conclu, ils n'ont que la "creance" (dayn) sur son, beneficiaire direct et ne sont pas opposables a un tiers acquereur. Al-Shafi'i (m. 204/820) concile les deux positions. Il adopte l'opinion de l'ecole hanafite en ce qui concerne le moment de l'excerce des droits des heritiers, mais leur caractere ressemble plutot a ceux chez Malik ; leurs droits naissent au moment ou le de cujus contracte la maladie mortelle, n'etant confirmee qu'apres sa mort. Il en resulte qu'ils peuvent vicier retroactivement sa liberalite de la facon absolue.
In recent years the subject of Tokusei (Moratorium on Debts) has become a major topic of debate, with attention focusing on the peculiarity of land-holding in Medieval Japan ; i.e. the right of original ownership (honshuken). This paper approaches this problem by comparing the sale with the pawn of land. The main points argued are as follows. The first point made is that while transfers of land ownership in the Middle Ages may be strictly divided into perpetual sales (eitai baibai) and pawn (where the mortgaged land passes into the hands of the lender for the duration of the loan, and which is called ireshichi, honsenkaeshi, and so on.), both forms of transfer are basically the same in function. However, the legal distinction between sale and pawn is valid at the level of ordinary life, but in an extraordinary situation -the prime example of this is a Tokusei Edict, but violation by a third party is another example- this distinction may disappear and a landsale may be treated as a mortgage. In such a case the original owner can assert the right of redemption. The second point made concerns the process whereby the above relation between the sale and the mortgage of land came about. As Kikuchi Yasuaki has pointed out, in ancient society the sale of land functioned as a mortgage with the right of use passing to the "buyer", but as the medieval system of landownership developed, the right of redemption was lost, and the medieval system of "perpetual sale" developed. In ancent society, pawn was not thought of as a form of mortgage, but with the rise of a new urban class of money-lending merchants, it came to be recognised as one form of mortgage. Thus sales retaining the right of redemption came to be thought of as mortgage contracts, and the legal relation between perpetual sales and mortgages, based on the distinction between whether the right of redemption was retained or not, became established sometime around the late Kamakura or Namboku Cho Period.
The problem of popular revolt in western european towns after the latter half of the thirteenth century has called many scholars' attention, because it characterises the urban social fluctuation in the late middle ages. Especially in the Low Countries, where urbanization was the most advanced in western europe, this sort of popular movement was so drastic as H.Pirenne called "democratic revolution." But scholars have recently denied generalizing his opinion, and have reexamined many urban revolts according to the various types based on their regional and urban conditions. As a case study, this paper deals with the town of Huy in the bishopric of Liege which was characterised by its prosperous industrial and economic activity as the towns of Flanders. In the formation process of the urban elite (patriciat urbain) of thirteenth century Huy, we can confirm 43 families occupying he post in the college of scabini (echevins) which was a major urban organization like jurati (jures) at that time. These families had great influence upon the municipal government in both economic and political sides. Some of these leading families participated in the woolen textile trade and financial business as well as possession of urban and rural property. They were closely connected with the town lord (bishop of Liege) especially through their offices (echevin, maire, eswardeurs de draperie, maitre de monetaire, etc.). A series of popular revolts (1255, 1297, 1299-1302) rose against such an urban elite. The first revolt of 1255 was characterised by political elements related to the movement of the town of Liege and its famous leader Henri de Dinant. At that time people of Huy (communitas) were not organized as the autonomous political party, and did not have any program to change the urban government. On the other hand, revolts of 1297 and 1299 appear as social struggles in which craft guilds (metiers) played an important role. Especially in the revolt of 1299, they exiled the former urban elite and occupied the various municipal posts in place of them. This political system was supported by the bishop of Liege (Hugues de Chalon), but it continued only two and a half years because of the political change in the principality of Liege. Nevertheless this attempt became a starting point of their later participation in the municipal government. In this point we can consider this revolt as one of the most important movements in social history of Huy.