SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 94 , Issue 10
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Yoko Yazawa
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1549-1596,1698-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The role of the Tokugawa village, either shogunal or domanial, was two-fold : (1)it served as a self-ruling community of established villagers and (2)it was an administrative unit for the feudal lord to collect taxes and to govern the residents. Village finances, however, known as mura-nyuyo 村入用 and managed by the village officials, have so far been studied only in reference to the function of collecting various taxes imposed by the lord found in available local mura-nyuyo accounting books. The author intends to clarify the mechanism and features of Tokugawa village finances in terms of actual early 19th century conditions in loco. She conducts an examination of the Takashima han's financial ordinances known as buwari-shiho 歩割仕法 or system of controlling village expenditures, and then analyzes of the contemporary accounting books still preserved at the Shinano village of Misayamagodo 御射山神戸 in order to better understand the bookkeeping system and the recorded facts. The primary concern of the daimyo Suwa 諏訪, who enacted the said shiho four times between 1790 and 1816, was how to raise labour, articles and money necessary for his domanial administration, which included the annual tax collection itse1f. In order to meet this aim completely, the daimyo urged village officials to curtail unnecessary expenses and to eliminate false entries. He then instructed his magistrates to intensify their inspection of village accounting practices. Meanwhile, primarily in compliance with this domanial instruction, and for village purposes as well, the village officials of Misayamagodo kept from year to year abundant and complicated books on their financial affairs in addition to their census and cadastral registers and regular books on taxation proper. The annual records for village finances were divided into the two groups : omote 表 (front) and naisho 内所 (inside). The first group of accounting books was the product of all the processes of allotting, collecting and paying the domanial imposition on the village. It was composed of Books "A" and "a", in which were entered respectively details of the basic domanial assignments and receipts at the village, and of their individual allotments among the villagers ; and a duplicate of "A" was submitted to the domanial auditors for inspection. Labour and goods levied and delivered were evaluated in money before being alloted. Unequal burdens among villagers caused by advance payment in labour and kind were fairly adjusted on the basis of their land holding represented with the annual rice yield (kokudaka 石高). The second group of books was a product of the community life of the Tokugawa village, which functioned as a kind of legal person. The village itself spent labour, goods, and money in various autonomous functions to sustain the everyday life of its members. And the members shared appropriately these expenses per capita, per household, and per benefit, some by means of their labour or goods, others by means of money, thus offsetting the mutual unbalance of charges. Additional revenues were secured also from the village's tax-free fields and forests in common use, these dividends being expedient to offset a part of the said charges. This second group was composed of the Books "B" and "b", which recorded respectively items of income and expenditure occurring inside the village and their individual allotment and settlement. It is worthy of note that the naisho books covered functionally not only the accounts generated and settled within the village, but also those already entered in the official omote books, and that the lord's auditors probably had nothing to do with these "inside" books at all. The author concludes that this structure of local finance so clarified reflects the general feature of the Tokugawa village uniting the traditional self-ruling body and the feudal organization within one community.
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  • Kazuo Matsufuji
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1597-1621,1698
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Wie die fruhe Tyrannis, ist auch die spate Tyrannis eine bemerkenswerte Erscheinung in der Krisensituation der hellenischen Poleis. Die Krise, die die fruhe Tyrannis ermglichte, war die der Aristokratie der hellenischen Poleis, wodurch sich diejenige Burgerschaft in den hellenischen Poleis gebildet hatte, welche in den kommenden klassischen Poleis zum Kern werden muBte ; dagegen konnte man die Krise, die die spate Tyrannis hervorbrachte, als die Krise um das Uberleben der Poleis an sich ansehen. Die tyrannischen Regime im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. entstanden zwar in den fortgeschrittenen hellenischen Poleis, aber von groBerer historischer Bedeutung ist die starke territorialherrschaftliche Tyrannis, die in den Gebieten mit engen ethnischen Verbindungen entstand. Die Tyrannis in Thessalien und Phokis zeigen ein wichtiges Problem uber dis Staatsformung in den ethnischen Gebieten im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. : diese territorialherrschaftlichen tyrannischen Regime, entstanden unter dem politischen und wirtschaftlichen Druck der fortgeschrittenen Poleis, unterscheiden sich von den klassischen Poleis und konnen als eine der Ubergangsformen der Staaten von den klassischen Poleis zu den hellenistischen Monarchien betrachtet werden. In diesem Jahrhundert entstand auch in dem hochentwickelten Gebiet eine viele Gemeinschaften verwaltende Territorialherrschaft, die sich aus der Not der Griechen, sich an der Peripherie der hellenischen Welt gegen die Barbaren verteidigen zu mussen,gebildet hatte. Die Tyrannis des Dionysios in Sizilien und der Poleis in Kleinasien konnen in diesen Typ kategorisiert werden und auch als eine der Ubergangsformen der Staaten von den klassischen Poleis zu. den hellenistischen Monarchien betrachtet werden.
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  • Satoshi Ohira
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1622-1644,1696-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    About over 30 detached segments of ancient family registers from Mino 美濃 province (present day Gifu prefecture) remain in the Shosoin Documents 正倉院文書. They have been widely studied in order to elucidate the nature of the Japanese ancient family during the early Nara 奈良 period (early 8th century). The Mino family registers were compiled in 702, the second year of Taiho 大宝 ; but they no longer remain in original form. The Shakyojo 写経所 (the Sutra copying office), a section of the Zoto-daijishi 造東大寺司 (office in charge of building the temple of Todaiji 東大寺), required a great amount of paper in order to record such data as the supply and process of Sutra copying, the amount of paper to be used and the wages to be paid to the employees. To record such things, the backs of great many useless documents were used, which accounts for the Mino registers finding their way into the Shakyojo. The officer in charge of the project of Sutra copying would take a roll of such wastepaper, cut a sheet away, and use the back of it to record something and then join it to a book. In this way official documents like the Mino family registers consequently lost their original form. But the Sutra account books lost their original form, too, due to a number of re-arrangements beginning with Hoida Tadatomo 穂井田忠友 in the Tenpo 天保 era (1830〜1843). So before studying these official documents, these books of the Shakyojo should be restored to their original form. The Mino family registers were carried out according to Sato 里, villages, which formed a Kori 郡, or county. We know of the existence of six rolls of the Mino family registers ; and there are four segments in which we do not know what village and county they should belong to. During the Tenpyo 天平 era (729-749), three big projects of Sutra copying were undertaken. Each project was carried out in a separate building. Therefore when a roll of wastepaper was brought into a certain building, it would be used there exclusively. Guided by this fact, the author researched every segment in order to restore the original forms of the account books using the discarded Mino family registers. The author points out two characteristic tendencies in the re-use of the Mino registers ; (1)each roll was consumed in a specific project, and (2)a roll was disposed of in a very short period of time. After restoring the original order of the segments of each roll of the the Mino family registers, the author offers an opinion as to the name of the village and county of the four unclear segments.
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  • Hiroshi Nishikawa
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1645-1652
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Ryoichi Miwa
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1652-1659
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1660-1661
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (88K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1662-1663
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1663-1664
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1664-1666
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (386K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1666-1667
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1667-1668
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (201K)
  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1669-1695
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 1696-1700
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages App1-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages Cover3-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages Cover4-
    Published: October 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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