SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 94 , Issue 2
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (20K)
  • Yasutoshi Sakaue
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 129-161,281-28
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In Japan from the beginning of the tenth century to the middle of the eleventh century, deputy provincial governers (zuryo 受領) had to directly -without any kind of tax exaction contractor- grasp tax payer fumyo (負名). That is, the tax collection system in this period was characterised by their antagonistic relationship, in which zuryo found it necessary to keep fumyo directly within their own tax responsibility areas. It is this relationship that in this paper is referred to as the fumyo system. The birth of this system is related to the fact that in the latter half of the ninth century, administrators of provincial sub-divisions called gun (郡), who were to act as tax exaction contractor under provincial governors, began to fail to meet their obligations under the ritsu-ryo (律令) tax expropriation system, and therefore to make connections with the court noble families. Nevertheless, since the fumyo system was not a stable tax collection system, zuryo often had to manipulate defaults of fumyo tax payment with a concept of riso (里倉). This is the reason why riso fumyo were to be seen only between the beginning of the tenth century and the middle of the eleventh century, and came into exsistence because of the various problems connected with the replacement of deputy governors. In the latter half of the eleventh century deputy governors, aiming at a more secure system of tax collection, proposed the institution of zaicho-beppumyo (在庁別符名) etc., by which they were able to control those who were known as local land proprietors (zaichi-ryoshu 在地領主), and thus organized a new tax exaction sub-contracting class within their grasp. Consequently, while the fumyo system came into exsistence after the ecomomic failure of the local chiftains (zaichi shucho 在地首長) under the ritsu-ryo expropriation, it was established during this very unique period predating the emergence of the zaichi-ryoshu ; that is, a period which experienced a great deal of instability in its tax collection apparatus due to the troubles in the leadership exercised by deputy provincial governors.
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  • Hidenao Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 162-198,280-27
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This paper is an attempt to supplement the present states of the insufficient studies in the power structure in the political history of modern Japan. That is, it is an attempt to elucidate the structure of the Yamagata clan's rule over the House of Peers, which was, beside the Army, one of the most important bases of the clan. Chapter I is to be a basis for the analysis of the structure of the House of Peers. In this chapter, the clarification of the structural characteristics of the parties will be made by analysing the decline of the Konwakai parties-both in regard to the titled members and to the imperial nominees in the House. Chapter II is an attempt to elucidate the last period of the Second Katsura Cabinet, in which the system of the Yamagata clan's rule over the House of Peers was reorganized. Part I of this chapter deals with the two parties of Saiwai-Club, which played the major role in the rule by the Yamagata clan. This part not only discusses the nature of "the executive system" (which played a leading part in controling the parties), but also indicates the fact that the Yamagata clan practically ruled and controled both the two parties of Saiwai-Club by organizing the chief members of the executives into an unofficial organization called Jukkin-Kai. This part, in addition, investigates the generational characteristics of the Yamagata clan as a union of officials. Part II of this chapter investigates, with special attention to the viscounts and barons, the development of the Yamagata clan's deal with the titled members. Thus investigating, this part elucidates the fact that the Yamagata clan succeeded both in ruling the viscounts by ensuring its initiative in the Kenkyu-Kai under Mishima's order, and in ruling the barons by absorbing them into the two parties of Saiwai-Club. Also, this part clarifies the main causes of the Yamagata clan's success in ensuring its initiative in the Kenkyu-Kai. Chapter III is an attempt to investigate the divisional nature of the whole structure of the Yamagata clan as well as to explain concretely its centripetal tendency by paying attention to the actual cases in the House of Peers. And lastly, the importance of the House of Peers for the whole of the Yamagata clan is examined by comparing the House and the Privy Council.
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  • Shun-ichi Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 199-225,279-27
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Il y a beaucoup de recherches sur le catharisme du temps de Reforme a l'epoque contemporaine. D'abord, elles commencerent comme l'apologetique soit catholique, soit protestant. Depuis 19^e siecle, elles prirent de plus en plus visiblement une couleur politique. Les recherches objectives n'apparurent qu'autour de 1940. H.Grundmann et A. Borst entre autres ont contribue d'en poser les fondements. Toutefois, tandis qu'innombrables monographies et syntheses continuent d'etre ecrites depuis lors, aucune perspective nouvelle ne semble pas se presenter. Nous avons fait, donc, essai d'apporter une perspective nouvelle sur le sujet des cathares en Languedoc. Pour cela, nous avons traite hors du catharisme, la cabale et l'amour provencal, ces trois contemporains et les plus remarquables pensees languedociennes aux XII^e. et XIII^e siecles. Pourquoi ces trois pensees coexistaient et etaient favorisees largement en Languedoc, bien que tres differents au point de vue de leurs caractere ou filiation? Nous avons repondu a cette question par analyser la structure profonde et l'intention immanente a cette structure. Si l'on compare ces trois pensees, on s'apercoit qu'elles ont presque les memes structure et intention : dualisme extreme, mouvement ascendant dans le champ plein de tension, et effort pour restaurer la totalite (disparition de distance), etc. A notre avis, cette structure commune a ces trois pensees doivent etre regardee comme l'aspect le plus important de la <<structure mentale>> de Languedoc d'alors. Ensuite, a propos de la relation entre le catharisme et la societe, nous ne nous contentons pas des opinions qui attribuent la cause de la floraison cathare au anti-clericalisme des nobles ou a la corruption des pretres. Afin de mieux comprendre la vraie cause, nous avons mis la psychologie en profondeur de C.G. Jung en question, et fait un apercu general sur ses theories sur l'inconscient collectif, l'archetype, et l'energetique mentale. En les appliquant a notre sujet, la structure et l'intention de la pensee cathare, que nous avons situees dans la structure mentale de Languedoc, represente, en effet, la grande tension et la desintegration de l'equilibre entre les aspects positif et negatif a l'inconscient collectif de Languedoc, ainsi que l'effort pour restaurer l'equilibre et la totalite perdus au niveau mental plus eleve. En un mot, c'est le "processus d'individuation."
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  • Yutaka Nozawa
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 226-235
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Toru Koizumi
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 235-243
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 244-246
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 246-248
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 248-249
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 249-250
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 250-
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (149K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 251-252
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 253-277
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 278-281
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
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