SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 94 , Issue 4
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Koji Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 427-457,564
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Among the decisions (saikyo-jyo) which were issued by Kamakura Bakufu, there were some decisions that used an assumptive word "koto-jichi-naraba". This word implied that in that case the Bakufu reserved the right to decide whether it was the fact or not. Therefore in some cases, as the result of this reservation, after many years there occured a new dispute. Why did these decisions use such an assumptive word? These may possibly have been the writs of summons (toi-jyo), not the decisions. As for the writs of summons in Kamakura period, there were two different types. One was relatively short and neutral. And the other was long and showed some value judgements. For that reason, the latter was sometimes misused as a decision. Both problematic documents (the decisions with an assumptive word and the long writs of summons) were issued before the middle of the 13th century. Accordingly we can consider these documents as the documents which were issued during the transition period of Kamakura legislation. Nevertheless as for the settlement of dispute, these documents were not so useless. According to this fact, we know that at this period Kamakura Bakufu was called for as an authority not as a coercive power.
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  • Tadashi Ito
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 458-481,563-56
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The two tombs were found in the autumn of 1977 at Vergina by M.Andronikos, professor at the University of Thessaloniki. One of these tombs proved to be an unplundered royal grave. Finds from this Macedonian tomb allow it to be dated in the third quarter of the fourth century B.C.. The discovery of a diadem in the main chamber, and a pair of greaves different in length and form in the antechamber (Philip II is reported to have been lame), and the fact that only one king of Macedon died between 350-325 B.C., namely Philip II in 336 B.C., led Andronikos to conclude that the tomb belonged to Philip II and his last wife Kleopatra. This discovery aroused great interest among specialists and scholars and also his hypothesis posed several questions which are still being discussed. In this paper the author considers the relation between the greaves different in length and form and Philip's lameness. The illustration of the greaves themselves (cf. Fig. 3) shows that the short greave was for the left leg, whereas, according to some literary sources, Philip II was wounded in the right leg, both in the shin in 345 B.C. and in the thigh in 339 B.C., the latter wound being said to have lamed him. These facts prove that Philip's wounds cannot possibly have any connection whatsoever with the greaves in the antechamber. On the other hand, Hammond supposes, about the greaves, that "one of his and one of hers" were put there (in the antechamber) for the lady by mistake. If it is right, the only possibility that "one of his and one of hers" can be put there for the lady by mistake is the case of synchronous burial. And further, the presence of armour in the antechamber shows that the queen was a warrior. By examining closely both on the basis of some literary sources, the author suggests that the tomb at Vergina is not the burial place of Philip II and his wife Kleopatra, but of Philip III Arrhidaios and his wife Eurydike.
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  • Toru Kumazawa
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 482-511,562-56
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Amidst the wave of research that is furthering our understanding of blocs of consolidated villages (kumiai mura 組合村), which have been seen as middle level control mechanism within all the territories ruled by the Tokugawa Bakufu, this paper takes up widespread legal petitioning movements carried out by agricultural villages throughout the environs of Edo. In the eleveth month of 1789 (Kansei 寛政 1), a confederation of villages around Edo lodged a complaint with the Bakufu's Taxation and Judicature Functionary (Kanjo Bugyo 勘定奉行) in a legal attempt to bring about reductions in the price of fertilizer-use night soil. At its height, this legal battle brought together a total of 1016 villages, thus rivaling in scale provincial level legal struggles (kokuso 国訴) carried on in the Kinai region of western Japan. The night soil which had accumulated in the townships (machikata 町方) and samurai residential areas (yashiki-kata 屋敷方) of Edo proper was under contract (shimo-soji keiyaku 下掃除契約) collected by surrouding peasants as a valuable source of crop fertilizer. However, during the latter half of the eighteenth century, there appeared certain persons who attempted to capture night soil collection rights from peasants through contract price competition, which resulted in substantial increases in the contract prices offered to the residents of Edo proper. In response to this inflationary situation, the surrounding villages petitioned the Bakufu, based on such intervillage resolutions as bans on such competitive practices and the return of collection rights which had been taken away through such practices. The demands made to the Taxation and Judicature Functionary aimed at an autonomous system of night soil collection and included 1)official recognition of inter-village resolutions, 2)the prohibition of night soil collection by townsfolk not under the control of village administrators, and 3)recognition of contract price reduction negotiations and their dissemination throughout Edo proper. Four years later in the sixth month of 1792 (Kansei 4), a decision was handed down, which refused to recognize inter-village resolutions, but which prohibited townsfolk involvement in collecting and contracting activities, and recognized full agricultural villager control of night soil. Also during this four years period, organized groups of villages were successful in reducing through negotiation the contract price of night soil. After offering a general outline of the litigation movement as a whole, the author turns to the question of how this movement was organized. The most outstanding characteristic of this organization is the fact that it was a total consolidation of villages according to regional units called "ryo" 領 (territories) and irregardless of differences between various feudal lords which ruled over the regions. Ryos were middle level administrative units within the Edo environs and had been organized for the exaction of the various dues to be performed in relation to samurai falconing grounds. Various directives (furetsugi 触次) had been issued to these ryos concerning the control of their villages ; however, execution of these directives was left to a council of village adminitrators within the ryo (ryochu hyogi 領中評議). In the case of the night soil collection rights legal struggle of 1788, a total of 37 ryos took part and a group of 21 petitioning representatives were set up. These representatives, from their bositions on a representative council (ryoryo hyogi 領々評議), both looked into the policies taken by the movement and gave guidance to the villages in drawing up their resolution documents. Therefore, it was through the three levels of village assembly (mura yoriai 村寄合) --- ryo council (ryochu hyogi) --- ryo confederation council (ryoryo hyogi) that the demand of the peasants was taken up and a consensus was reached concerning an autonomous system of night soil collection. This consensus was reaffirmed th
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  • Fumihiko Gomi
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 512-518
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Shoichi Soejima
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 518-525
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 526-527
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 527-529
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 529-530
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 530-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 531-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 531-533
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 534-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 535-559
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages 560-564
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 94 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 1985
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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