SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 95 , Issue 4
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Yuzo Shitomi
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 441-473,592-59
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Nous possedons aujourd'hui quatre principales sources hagiographiques qui relatent la persecution des chretiens himyarites de Nagran au VI^e siecle apres J.-C. par le roi juif Yusuf du-Nuwas : l'ancienne Lettre de Simeon, la nouvelle Lettre attribuee au meme auteur, le Martyrium Arethae et le Livre des Himyarites. Or, en ce qui concernait la date precise de ces evenements, se fiant aux donnees chronologiques du Martyrium, on considerait depuis long-temps que cette persecution avait eu lieu vers le 24 octobre 523. Mais la decouverte et la publication de la nouvelle Lettre il y a presque quinze ans ont suscite de nombreuses controverses a propos de cette date : beaucoup d'arguments ont ete apportes, en vue de demontrer que la persecution avait eu lieu en 518, et non en 523. Vivement interesse par cette controverse, nous avons voulu reexaminer nous-meme la date de cette persecution. Parmi les quatre documents cites ci-dessus, nous avons examine dans cet article les donnees chronologiques du Martyrium. Les conclusions que nous tirons sont les suivantes. 1.La date qui aurait figure au §1 du texte original en syriaque : "dans la douzieme indiction, au mois de Tesrin I (=octobre 518)" aurait vise la premiere expedition ethiopienne en Arabie du Sud, alors que la date qui aurait ete donnee au §20 : "au mois de Tesrin II, le 24, dans la deuxieme indiction (=le 24 novembre 523)" aurait vise la persecution de Harith et de ses compagnons. 2.La date qui aurait ete donnee par le §1 du texte original comme etant celle de la premiere expedition des Ethiopiens, c'est-a-dire, octobre 518, est tout a fait compatible avec le rapport de Cosmas Indicopleustes qui assista a Adoulis, au debut du regne de Justin, aux preparatifs de cette expedition sur le point de partir. Mais, compte tenu de la connaissance que nous avons de l'existence de vents contraires a cette epoque de l'annee en Mer Rouge, il nous semble que cette expedition aurait du partir au plus tard avant la fin de septembre, octobre etant plutot le mois au cours duquel se sont deroules des combats entre les deux camps. 3.Apparement, les evenements se repartissent sur quatre jours dans la description du Martyrium. Mais, quand on resitue chronologiquement a sa propre place le martyre de Harith et de ses compagnons, toute la persecution se deroule sur trois, ou eventuellement sur deux jours. En tout cas, Harith et ses compagnons furent executes le meme jour que leurs femmes, deux jours avant l'execution de la noble dame et de ses filles, comme il est relate dans l'ancienne Lettre. Nous avons l'intention de publier d'ici peu la suite de cet article, ou seront examinees les donnees chronologiques qui figurent dans les trois autres sources.
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  • Toru Masubuchi
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 474-501,591-58
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Kageyushi-kanpan-sho 勘解由使勘判抄 (a selection from the judical precedents of Kageyushi) is practically the only historical text that embodies activities of inspectors charged with investigation of governmental transitions (Kageyushi 勘解由使) in the first half of the 10th century, and is one of the important selections of legal precedents during the Fujiwara regency government (Sekkan seiji 摂関政治) period in Japan. The main purpose of this article is to criticize Kageyushi-kanpan-sho historically in order to identify changes in the political system of this period and to grasp some idea of the characteristics of the Sekkan government system, by pursuing the consistent principle in judgements (Kageyushi-kanpan 勘解由使勘判) on non-issuance of proof of Smooth transition (fuyogeyujo 不与解由状), by searching out changes in their logic and by tracing the process of Kageyushi-kanpan-sho compilation. The consistent principle of Kageyushi-kanpan is that theft and fraud by government officials (mainly provincial governors -zuryo 受領) is constituted by two factors -false testimony (mujitsu 無実) and unclearness as to the cause of loss. In all cases of actual commission of theft/fraud compensation will be paid in accordance with the criminal law (ritsu 律), and in cases of negligence of duty compensation only will be rendered. The focus of judgements was placed on how to interpret the statements made by outgoing and incoming officials (mainly zuryo) in connection with fuyogeyujo, and whether the so convicted outgoing official should be granted an amnesty or not. But while the aforesaid principles of judgement to be made by Kageyushi remained unchanged, after the late Engi era the logic of actual judgements began to change arbitrarily even though they were in accordance with administrative transition regulations (kotaishiki 交替式), administrative regulations (kyaku 格), and criminal law (ritsu 律). Also, in this period, judgement-operations of Kageyushi began to be remarkably delayed, and the function of Kageyushi began to decline in the midst of political change characterized by a decline in the leadership of Emperor Daigo and the subsequent seizure of power by Fujiwara Tadahira in the later years of the Engi era. One of the political features of Fujiwara Tadahira's regime was the creation of private connections with zuryo by taking advantage of the existing administrative code system. Such a method was necessary for sublating a private connection into an official one. But since such connections were established not on the basis of a new system but on the basis of the existing system, there was a limit to such a privatization. In Fujiwara Tadahira's regime the function of Kageyushi made a remarkable change. By the Imperial command (senji 宣旨) under the date of Tengyo 天慶8. 正.8, Kageyushi started to take part directly in provincial government efficiency-ratings (zuryo-koka 受領功過) by drawing up documents on the basis of fuyogeyujo. Together with the change in function from the inspection of official transitions to efficiency-rating, Kageyushi-kanpan-sho was also compiled. In compiling Kageyushi-kanpan-sho, each precedent was extracted from the official documents preserved in Kageyushi's office (choan 長案). According to circumstances, some governmental directives (senji and kanpu) were quoted for pointing out clearly the legal grounds for the judgement of Kageyushi. Criterion-examples derived deductively from the administrative transition regulations were arranged, and a device to show the settled interrelation between the kind of amnesty and the judgement was invented. All these things contributed to giving it a character worthy of the name a selection of precedents. Compiling such a selection, however, meant that not only the formalization of control over zuryo but also the nature of the relation between the central government and the local gevernment by zuryo was settled.
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  • Kazuto Hongo
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 502-527,589-58
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This paper tries to explicate the function of Japanese medieval temples through a case study of the Koya-san Buddhist temple complex. (1)There were a number of groups of Buddhist priests connected with Koya-san. Each of the groups formed congregations for the purpose of expressing their will. There was also a central organization, Daishu-e, which consisted of all these groups. Furthermore, there was a special group among them called Shoshu-e, which was formed by the children of the warriors in the Koya District. Because it held a great deal more military and economic power than any of the other groups, the Shoshu-e took the leading role in the Daishu-e central organization. (2)The proprietary control exercised by Koya-san was done by a land apportionment system promoted by the group known as Bundenshu, most of whose members came from the Shoshu-e. By means of this new system of control, resident proprietors were able to avoid direct confrontation with self-governing villages (so-son), while at the same time opening the way to participation in the affairs of thier lord, Koya-san itself. This new system was also an attempt to insure their rights and interests within village communities. From these two points, the author concludes that the major political force within Koya-san consisted of the warrior class resident proprietors of the Shoshu-e. The characteristics of their movements centering on Koya-san can be best represented as "Ichimi" (acting together). The notion of "Ichimi" was strongly connected with "Wago" (peaceful coexistence), which is one of the ideas of Buddhism. It is precisely because the warriors thought that temples imbued with the notion of "Wago" would be the most suitable place for the state of "Ichimi" that they gathered within Koya-san. Therefore the temple functioned socially as a core of equality during the Middle Ages.
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  • Susumu Ishii
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 528-532
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Hidekazu Kawai
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 533-540
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 541-542
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 542-543
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (286K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 543-544
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 544-545
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 545-547
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 547-548
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 548-549
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 550-
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 551-587
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages 588-592
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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