SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 95 , Issue 8
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (21K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (21K)
  • Yukio Arai
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1287-1320,1421-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Discussions about "Bastard Feudalism" have thus far tended to portray a social system providing an essential tie between the greater and lesser aristocracy in later medieval England. There are some case studies which examine a particular lord's affinity and emphasize the importance of its social function in combining the nobility and the gentry. However, they apparently look at the problem from only one side, as they mainly rely on sources of noble households, e.g., annuitant books and indentures of service. Was a man of the gentry class usually in any lord's affinity at all? What did a lord's affinity mean for him? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions upon the evidence of the gentry's own records, i.e., mainly their wills. All testaments and last wills named executors and usually also surveyors and witnesses. In addition, many last wills written in the fifteenth century include names of feoffees who held lands to the use of the testator or his heir. So it is possible from these entries to reconstruct networks of a gentleman's acquaintances and to examine how he depended upon his lord's affinity when it protected his lands. Thus 125 gentlemen's wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury or other consistory courts were selected and 474 lay people were taken from these wills and their social connections investigated. The following results appear from this investigation. Almost all prominent testators who once held important offices for counties (e.g., Justices of the Peace, Members of Parliament and Sheriffs) were of affinity of at least one lord, and in a few cases, of several lords. Such testators chose their executors mainly from the fellow gentlemen of their lords' affinity. They chose their surveyors from people who were well-connected, being of affinity of several lords. Above all, a gentleman whose estates were scattered about in a county or in several counties chose exclusively from the fellow gentlemen of his lord's affinity. Thus the importance of a lord's affinity is shown from the gentry's viewpoint ; but at the same time, this investigation also reveals that, upon the evidence of the gentry's wills, the strongest power of attraction was observed not between the lord and his client but between the latter and his fellow clients of the same lord. In other words, the lord did not play a role as important as the testator's fellow clients in his will. Secondly, it should not be overlooked that some gentry testators chose his executors among his neighbours of the same class without affinity, though the latter's positions in the wills were not so important. If we consider these facts together with "the County Community of the Gentry" in the fifteenth century, it appears that the significance for a gentleman of being of a lord's affinity laid in the mutual tie which was forged between him and men of his own class, rather than in the tie between him and his lord.
    Download PDF (2636K)
  • Yoshiaki Kawamoto
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1321-1346,1420-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Taking a general survey of past research which considers ethnic groups in the Liu-chao 六朝 period, many monographs regard a distinction between Man 蛮 (non-Chinese who live in the middle and south of China) and Han 漢 (Chinese) as a clear matter, however, for the Liu-chao period, this distinction is essentially ambiguous. Of course, there are some scholars who have recognized this ambiguity. However, their attention has been mainly concentrated on the classification of Man and Han, and their attention to the people who fall on the boundary between the two ethnic groups is only secondary. Therefore, their views are dualistic in nature, and they are concerned with the problem of designating ethnic groups as Man or Han. Such a viewpoint makes it very difficult to comprehend Shan-Yue 山越 (ethnic groups in the Sun-Wu 孫呉 Period) and the rebellion in the late Liang 梁 and the early Chen 陳 periods, both of which have great significance in the understanding the history of Liu-chao. To put this inconsistency among scholars in concrete terms, it is a confrontation between the view of Lu Ssu-mieh 呂思勉 and T'ang Chang-ju 唐長孺 who assert that Shan-Yue are Chinese and the view of Kawakatu Yoshio 川勝義雄 who asserts Shan-Yue are not Chinese. There is another confrontation between the view of Chen Yin-ke 陳寅各 who asserts that leaders of the rebellion in the late Liang and the early Chen periods were not Chinese, and the view of Enomoto Ayuchi 榎本あゆち who has refuted Chen Yin-ke's view. In this paper, the author's attention is given to this inconsistency, particulaly the fact that the dualistic classification between Man and Han does not accurately depict the real state of ethnic groups which existed in the Liu-chao period. In order to examine this incosistency in practice, the author takes up the real state of Shan-Yue, investigates in a village called Tung 洞, and describes the conditions of ruling families on the frontier. These empirical results are then linked with the author's understanding of ethnic groups and an explication of provincial territory in the Liu-chao period.
    Download PDF (2688K)
  • Hiroshi Kurushima
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1346-1378,1419-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the early part of the modern period those in power legitimized their authority in the consciousness of the people by forcing on them various patterns of etiquette and ceremony. In the same way in Early Modern Japan the bakufu and han authorities succeeded in securing its everyday management of the populace through the enforcing of many forms of etiquette and ceremony. For example, when the shogun or a daimyo travelled in procession the people living along the route used were required to perform many highly formalized and troublesome duties. By performing such duties as greeting and viewing the procession according to the rules of formality and performing ritualized services for the procession, the people were compelled to feel and experience the authority of the shogun and those in power. This paper investigates the historical significance of some of the ceremonial duties which were imposed on the people who lived along the roads whenever a shogun or daimyo procession passed. These formalities were the making of small conical piles of white sand in front of each house on either side of the road (morisuna), spreading white sand on the road (makisuna), and the placing of brooms and buckets in front of each house. These activities were part of the etiquette of road cleaning and purification, and as such were part of the broader formalities of "hospitality" (Chiso) due to the shogun or daimyo along the road. The placing of brooms, buckets and piles of white sand before each home, as well as the spreading cf white sand on the road, symbolized the completion of sweeping the road, spreading water to hold down the dust, and spreading sand which had to be done before any shogun, daimyo or their officially approved processions. In modern Japanese the meaning of the word Chiso is largely limited to providing food and drink ; however, in the Early Modern Period Chiso, which the people did for the authorities, included this road cleaning and purification, fixing up the houses on the street, repairing roads and bridges, greeting the procession as it passed and sending it off, together with all the formalities regulated down to the smallest and most trivial details. To show concretely the relationship between the people and the authorities in Early Modern Japan it is neccessary to clarify the enforced forms of etiquette and ceremony of Chiso.
    Download PDF (2847K)
  • Tetsuya Hashimoto
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1379-1384
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (624K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1385-1388
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (471K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1388-1390
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (375K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1390-1391
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (255K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1391-1392
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (257K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1393-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (138K)
  • Type: Bibliography
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1394-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1395-1418
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1855K)
  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages 1419-1422
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (264K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages App1-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (78K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages Cover3-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
feedback
Top