SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 95 , Issue 9
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Haruo Ishida
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1423-1463,1558-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This paper considers the characteristics of the Koga Gunchuso (甲賀「郡中惣」) by studying the movements of the Yamanaka (山中) clans during the Sengoku period. This movement has been regarded by scholars as a process of localization. The Yamanaka, however, were gradually deepening their relations with the Hosokawa (細川) clan since Hosokawa Sumimoto (細川澄元) relied on their support in l507 (Eisho 永正 4). Consequently the Yamanaka clan became the vassals (Uchishu 内衆) of Hosokawa Harumoto (細川晴元) during the Tenbun (天文) era (1532-55) and was appointed as adjutant to the chief constable (Shugodai 守護代) of Kake-gun (闕郡) in Settu (摂津) province. From the Nanboku-cho period, when clan leadership rights (Soryo-shiki 惣領職) were divided in two, up until the Sengoku period, there existed within the Yamanaka clan a condition known as Ryosoryo (両惣領 two clan heads). From the beginning this pair of Soryos (惣領) had been house vassals (Gokenin 御家人) of the Muromachi-bakufu (室町幕府). The Yamanaka's advance into Kake-gun was made by this pair of Soryos, not by any alliance organizations as the "Domyochu" (同名中) or the "Sanpochu" (三方中). In other words, only the Yamanaka clan advanced into Kake-gun, and concerning its rule over the area, the authority of the two Soryos was clearly delineated from that of common clan members (Shoshi 庶子). The "Domyochu" was not organized until after 1549 (Tenbun 18) when Hosokawa Harumoto was driven away by Miyoshi Chokei (三好長慶) and the Yamanaka clan lost Kake-gun. The "Domyochu" was not an organization in which the Soryo and Shoshi were tied together in relationships of equality. Rather it was an organization in which Shoshi were gathered under the Soryo and while it did restrain the power of the Soryo and it was included in their authority as clan heads. The "Sanpochu" was organized in accordance with a plan for forming a strong bond between the Soryos of the Yamanaka, Ban (伴), and Minobe (美濃部) clans in order to cope with the critical condition of the time. However there are no source materials showing other cases in which the members of Gunchuso gathered and organized a group containing the concept of "Kata" (方), like in the "Sanpochu". Therefore the "Sanpochu" can be considered to be an exception and to be equivalent to the "Domyochu" of other clans. The "law" established by the mutual consent of the "Domyochu" and "Sanpochu" should be considered to be a temporary law formed in crisis rather than a condification of the long-standing regional customs. Accordingly this "law" should be considered to be an expression of the dangers inherent in the local lord's domination. The "Gunchuso" was an alliance group formed by the Soryos of each member clan which took part in the "Domyochu", and was an organization of the lord class to facilitate the collection of the original rice tax (honnengu 本年貢). Seven out of the twelve identified members of the "Gunchuso" besides the Yamanaka are recorded clearly in historical materials. According to these materials, they were vassals (either Hokoshu ((奉公衆)) or Gokenin) of the Muromachi-bakufu. "Gunchuso" was a combination of these present or former Bakufu vassals not including the followers of the Rokkaku (六角) clan. "Gunchuso" was organized at about the beginning of the Eiroku (永禄) era (1558-70) to be the fighting force against the Miyoshi (三好). At first it was not called "Gunchu" (郡中). Only after Eiroku 11, when the Rokkaku was driven away from Kannonji (観音寺) Castle, did it come to be called "Gunchu". In those days the Rokkaku could not rule Koga-gun any longer without the help of "Gunchuso". In other words, "Gunchuso" neither excluded the power of Shugo (守護) nor established its own administrative power. Under the domination

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  • Atsushi Kawahara
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1464-1493,1556-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Les tables du Saint-Esprit etaient des organismes de charite qui venaient en aide aux pauvres de la paroisse. Au Moyen Age ces institutions existaient principalement dans les anciens Pays-Bas et elles etaient administrees par les autorites civiles. Depuis les annees 1960, beaucoup d'etudes, menees a partir des livres de comptes, ont ete faites sur les Tables qui fonctionnaient dans les villes de Flandre et du Brabant. Le cas de Gand, surtout, est remarquable parce qu' on a pu utiliser la comptabilite de la Table de la paroisse Saint-Nicolas depuis l'annee 1311 qui donne quantite d'informations sur l'activite de cette Table. Nous avons donc tente d'apporter des eclaircissements sur l'organisation et le fonctionnement de la Table de Gand au XIVe et au XVe siecle, en utilisant des documents inedits, principalement les cartulaires et les livres de comptabilite de la Table de la paroisse Saint-Nicolas. On peut tirer les conclusions suivantes : (1)L'aide offerte par la Table se limitait aux pauvres qui habitaient la paroisse. Ainsi, elle ne fonctionnait pas comme un organisme secourant les vrais "marginaux" tels que les vagabonds ou les mendiants. (2)Les secours distribues par cette institution avaient un caractere liturgique et symbolique, observant le calendrier de l'eglise de la paroisse, et ne se trouvaient pas forcement en rapport avec la situation reelle des pauvres au XIVe et au XVe siecle. (3)On peut dire que la Table n'a pas suffisamment distribue ce qui aurait permis de satisfaire les besoins vitaux des pauvres et qu'ainsi cette distribution n'avait qu' un caractere complementaire. Malgre ces limites, l'activite des Tables du Saint-Esprit a joue un role important dans l'organisation des secours apportes aux pauvres au bas Moyen Age dans les anciens Pays-Bas. Pour finir, on remarquera que la politique d'assistance aux pauvres a change dans la premiere moitie du XVIe siecle par la limitation du nombre des pauvres qui pouvaient beneficier de cette assistance. Les Tables, qui avaient ete independantes les unes par rapport aux autres, furent regroupees dans un organisme centralise d'assistance, sous l'autorite de l'administration municipale.
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  • Yasunao Kojita
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1494-1499
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Masanao Kurahashi
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1500-1508
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1509-1516
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1517-1523
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1524-1525
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1525-1526
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1527-1554
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages 1555-1558
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages Cover3-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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