SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 96 , Issue 9
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Muneo Sasaki
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1409-1444,1559-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The inspection of documents after delivery of taxes (kumon kankai 公文勘会), which was one of the main mechanisms for the control of citizens under the ritsuryo 律令 system, began to change significantly between the late ninth and early tenth century, as the duties of officially appointed provincial governors (kokushi kancho 国司官長), especially the collection of taxes, became entrusted to a group of administrators known as zuryo 受領. Together with zuryo assuming tax collection, evidenced by their holding of receipts (sphensho 惣返抄) for delivery of taxes to public offices and powerful families, the inspection system concerning provincial tax registers (shozeicho 正税帳) also went through changes. Up until that time, tax register auditing had not been very accurate as to the reporting of provincial rice tax income (kanmotsu 官物) or the type and amount of expenditures incurred during the year. However, at the beginning of the tenth century, the re-location and use of tax rice stored by provincial governments was systemized and became the major resource for public works and ceremonies, as well as for the payment of official salaries. Needless to say, tax register auditing also came to demand more precision. In this process, registers recording tax income allocation to the provinces (shozei henkyakucho 正税返却帳) and the issuance of receipts for delivery came to serve the same function. Zuryo administrators by receiving both of these documents, took complete control of the tax document auditing system. At the same time, the central government also made changes in the supervision system over the appointment of new provincial governors, and strengthened the auditing function so as not only to include register calculation, but also to initiate actual provincial storehouse inventory control. In other words, zuryo were now the sole responsible parties for increases and decreases occurring in provincial rice stores during the time of their assumption of gubernatorial duties. Moreover, reports from functionaries together with a report on related puplic documents came to be reviewed by a council of top-ranking aristocrats. This review of the achievements and failures of zuryo completed the system for assuring the transfer of tax income on to the central government stores, thus giving rise to a reliable source of funds for the performance of public projects and ceremonies. Document inspection was carried out between the central government and zuryo administrators. Given the various procedures involving petitions to the review council and reporting to the monarch, the process was by no means easy for zuryo. Following document inspection, a review of zuryo performance involved evaluation of present and past zuryo governors, and concentrated on their handling of provincial rice tax income. Zuryo who passed document inspection and review of performance would be elevated in rank and be eligible for re-appointment as experienced office holders (kyuri 旧吏). However, between the tenth and eleventh centuries zuryo appointments came to include a goodly number of persons holding other official positions, thus giving rise to bitter disputes over the re-appointment of many experienced zuryo. The zuryo review system was done away with altogether in the early twelfth century. At that time there began to appear such practices as automatic re-appointments and relocation of zuryo, refusal to recognize experienced appointees, and the mere formalization of the document inspection and performance review processes. This reduction of appointment procedures to mere formality continued during the house government of the ex-emperor Shirakawa-in 白河院.
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  • Chisato Kanda
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1445-1468,1557-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This paper concerns the Kawashima 革島 family which has been regarded in previous research as a Shoryoshu 小領主 (under-developed land proprietor), described as one of the organizers of Sengoku period ikki 一揆 (alliances for joint protest) which included jizamurai 地侍 (local magnates) and hyakusho 百姓 (free commoners). Shoryoshu are considered to have belonged neither perfectly to the bushi 武士 (warrior) classes nor completely to the common people, and therefore have been thought to have stood the "bushi" classes and the common people. In this article, the author tries to throw some light upon the conditions of the Kawashima family's attempt to accumulate, through purchase, various forms and scales of ownership over the lands scattered throughout the districts around its home region. This characteristic has been regarded as the main feature of shoryoshu in previous research. Here the author explains how the Kawashima family was able to protect its land ownership against tokusei ikki 徳政一揆 (an uprising by the people demanding return of land sold and dissolution of debts) and tokuseirei 徳政令 (an act by the Muromachi Bakufu 室町幕府 ordering the return of land sold and the dissolution of debts). To begin with, the author points out, through an analysis of Kawashima family held tochi baiken 土地売券 (land sale certificates), the fact that the land ownership of the family was protected by the Muromachi Bakufu, even during the promulgation of tokuseirei. Secondly, the soryo 惣領 (chief) of the family was a vassal of the Ise 伊勢 family, who occupied an important position in the Muromachi Bakufu government. One can easily see that this vassalage would be fairly convenient to the Kawashima family for assuring the protection of its land ownership by the Muromachi Bakufu. The author concludes, contrary to statements appearing in previous research, that the Kawashima family was not an under-developed land proprietor, but rather fully belonged to the "bushi" classes.
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  • Manabu Sato
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1468-1487,1556-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This paper investigates the actual conditions of guilds in the Ch'ang-shu hsien-Ch'eng 常熟県城 during the late Ming and the early Ch'ing on the basis of tang-kuan 當官 epigraphs contained in the Chiang-su sheng Ming-Ch'ing i-lai pei-k'e tzu-liao hsuan-chi 江蘇省明清以来碑刻資料選集 (1958) and Ming Ch'ing Suchou kunghang yeh pei-k'e chi 明清蘇州工商業碑刻集 (1980). From the middle Ming Dynasty onward, the evils of the p'u-hu 鋪戸 corvee (the corvee for the provision of official necessaries) constituted a social problem in local cities as well as Pei-ching and Nan-ching. Those epigaphs were made as the result that the guilds had petitioned the government to remove these evils. The time when they were made is from Wan-li 万暦42 (1614) to Ch'ien-lung 乾隆34 (1769). Those of the K'ang-hsi 康煕 era occupy more than half the number. They refer to many types of occupations such as pawnbrokers, lumber traders, dry goods dealers, dyers houses, grocers and the like. Though they were erected at the government office and their contents concerned notifications of the governor (Chih-hsien 知県) who had received directions from superior offices, the building expenses were borne by the guilds. An analysis of epigraphs classified by business shows that the activity for defence of interests against the government was actualized. That is to say, the organized power of the guilds was increasing in this period. Generally the development of monetary economy and simple commodity production has been pointed out as factors promoting the growth of guilds. In addition to this, the settlement of outside merchants such as Hsin-an 新安 merchants in the pawnbroker guild is remarkable. Therefore, the growth of guilds during this period was due to unified power that outside merchants possessed as company settling from the same province. Those merchants practiced not only the defence of interests against the goverment, but also mutual aid like the foundation of cemeteries (i-chung 義塚). As a rule, these activities of outside merchants made the foundation of guild halls (hui-kuan kun-so 会館・公所) that became popular during the early Ch'ing possible.
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  • Konen Kuwayama
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1488-1498
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Kinya Abe
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1499-1505
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1506-1513
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1514-1515
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (245K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1515-1516
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (267K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1516-1517
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (267K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1517-1518
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (250K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1518-1520
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (349K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1520-1521
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (253K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1521-1522
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1522-1523
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (219K)
  • Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1524-1555
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages 1556-1560
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages Cover3-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 96 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1987
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (33K)
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