SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 97 , Issue 12
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages Cover1-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages Cover2-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Mamoru Hagihara
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 1939-1976,2073-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    A great deal of research has been done on the legal system in Mongolia during the Ch'ing period. But most of it is concerned with interpreting the Mongol Code (meng gu li 蒙古例) enacted by the Ch'ing government and tries to understand the judicial system in Mongolia in that way. There is no research which utilizes any actual judicial precedents. So there has been no way to see, except by speculation, (1)which code was actually effective, (2)how judgment was actually achieved, or (3)how leagues (cirulran) and banners (qosiru) actually functioned as judicial organs. In this paper the author collects and analyzes materials on judicial precedents in order to determine the actual process of the judicial system. He uses a collection of official documents (dang an 〓案) written in Mongolian. It was transcribed into the Cyrillic alphabet, titled as The oppression of Mongolian females in the period of the Manju invaders, and published at Ulan-bator in 1958. He also uses some other official documents photoengraved and introduced by K.Sagaster. The second chapter of The oppression of Mongolian females contains three documents exchanged between banners and leagues concerning an attempted murder which occurred in the left-wing-right-end (zuo yi you mo 左翼右末) banner of the Han-uul league in the Halha region. Looking at them, we can see the actual process of judgment. The outline of this incident is as follows. Two brothers stole three horses from a tayiji, but the bannerhead (jasar) ignored the Mongol Code and judged them by himself without reporting to his superiors. A daughter of the younger brother was given illegally to the tayiji in return for the stolen three horses and became a slave of the banner-head afterwards. Six years later she attempted to murder the banner-head and his wife, after she was incited by a man who had a grudge against the banner-head. The banner court of law sat again. Because she disclosed the illegal action of the banner-head in the second court of the league, the incident involved the banner-head himself and was reported to the emperor Qianlong (乾隆) by way of the minister dealing with the affairs in Huree (ku lun ban shi da chen 庫倫辧事大臣) and the board of foreign affairs (li fan yuan 理藩院). Finally the banner-head was deposed because of his illegal procedure and failure to report to his superiors, while the daughter was exiled to Canton, and the principal offender of the theft, her uncle, was sent to Hunan or Fukien. From these incidents, we can point out many legal facts which have not yet been appreciated. The first significant fact is the positive proof that the Mongol Code was applied in Mongolia during the Ch'ing period. And the second is the major principle that the Penal Code (xing lu・xing li 刑律・刑例) of the Ch'ing Code (da qing lu li 大清律例) was to be applied if there were no appropriate regulations in the Mongol Code. We can also bring out some other valuable facts : (1)the requirement that serious criminal cases had to be reported from banners to leagues and then to the board of foreign affairs, (2)the actual conditions at each level in which courts sat and the decisions were made and (3)the process of transporting criminals and witnesses from banners to leagues and then to Huree.
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  • Ikutaro Nabetani
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 1977-1997,2071-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Noch heute begegnet man in Bayern einer bestimmten Abneigung gegen Norddeutschland. Im Kaiserreich war man sich ihrer als "PreuBenhaB" bewuBt. Bei meiner Arbeit handelt es sich darum, den EinfluB dieses PreuBenhasses auf die Sozialdemokratische Partei Bayerns (SPB) zur Zeit des Vorsitzes von Georg von Vollmar, dessen Bestreben es war, die SPB zu einer Massenpartei zu machen, aufzuzeigen. Die Untersuchungszeit beschrankt sich hauptsachlich auf die erste Halfte der 1890er Jahren. Der PreuBenhaB der SPB hatte zwei Dimensionen. Zum einen ist er auf staatlicher Ebene anzutreffen. Die SPB wandte sich gegen eine preuBisch-unitarische Tendenz, die vollstandige Integration Bayerns in das unter riesiger preuBischer Zentralgewalt stehende Deutsche Reich zu erzwingen. Diese Politik hielt sie fur unertraglich. Von einem foderalistischen Standpunkt aus betonte die SPB mit Nachdruck die bayerische Staatssouveranitait. Ich mochte den PreuBenhaB auf dieser Ebene als "MakropreuBenhaB" bezeichnen. Ihr lag die Uberzeugung zugrunde, daB Bayern nicht nur sozialpolitisch, sondern auch kulturell hoherentwickelt als PreuBen war. Zum andern existierte ein PreuBenhaB auf innerparteilicher Ebene, den ich "MikropreuBenhaB" nennen mochte. Der Vorstand der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands (SPD) in Berlin ignorierte die besonderen Verhaltnisse des agrarisch strukturierten bayerischen Landes und seines Volkes, und zwang der SPB eine einseitige Strategie auf, mit der sie aber keine Bauern gewinnen konnte. In der SPB bewertete man das Verhalten des SPD-Vorstandes als Ausdruck des preuBischen Korporalgeistes. Dieses lehnte sie ab und entwickelte dagegen ein dem bayerischen Milieu entsprechendes eigenes Konzept. Beide Dimensionen - die staatliche und die innerparteiliche - verbanden und erganzten sich. Man darf nicht vergessen, daB alle fuhrenden Personlichkeiten der SPB als geborene Bayern nicht nur Sozialdemokraten, sondern auch ausgesprochene partikularistische Patrioten waren. Frau von Vollmar sprach von einer bewuBten "Gefuhlsgemeinschaft" zwischen ihrem Mann und dem bayerischen Volk. Und dazu gehorte auch der gemeinsame PreuBenhaB. Zur Zeit des Vollmarschen Vorsitzes lag die deutsche Reichsgrundung schon zwanzig Jahre zuruck. Aber Regionalismus und bayerischer Patriotismus waren lebendig und wirkten auch in die SPB hinein.
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  • Kuniaki Yamada
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 1998-2007
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Masaru Maruyama
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 2007-2016
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 2017-2036
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 2037-2039
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 2039-2040
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 2041-2070
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 2071-2074
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 1-9
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages 5-1
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages App1-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages App2-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (68K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages Cover3-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (32K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 12 Pages Cover4-
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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