SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 97 , Issue 1
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Yoshihiro Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 1-41,143-144
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Robespierre, s'il a souvent ete lie a la Terreur, fut aussi l'un des principaux organisateurs de la fete de l'Etre Supreme. Le but de cet article est d'examiner la pensee de Robespierre (surtout sa pensee en matiere de religion) ainsi que le contexte de l'epoque, de maniere a saisir pourquoi il fut a l'initiative de ce culte. 1.La pensee religieuse de Robespierre comporte deux aspects. (1)des principes invariants durant la periode revolutionnaire. (2)une evolution, fruit de sa propre experience personnelle. (1)Robespierre croyait en un "Dieu" transcendant. Mais il ne s'agit pas du Dieu tel qu'il est defini dans le dogme chretien. En effet, Robespierre tenait pour verite l'idee que l'homme dans l'etat de nature est fondamentalement bon. Ceci implique la negation du fondement dogmatique du christianisme puisque dans la pensee chretienne, c'est le Dieu Sauveur qui permet a l'homme de racheter son peche originel a condition que celui-ci fasse preuve de repentir et de foi. Mais la negation du peche originel pour Robespierre entraine des consequences : la corruption de l'homme est due au vice des institutions sociales si bien que les problemes moraux, - la regeneration des moeurs -peuvent etre resolus par une pratique politique de reforme des institutions de la societe. C'est dans un tel contexte ideologique que furent organisees et meme quasiment institutionnalisees les fetes nationales puis la fete de l'Etre Supreme. (2)Lors d'un voyage a Arras, sa ville d'origine, Robespierre eut l'occasion d'assister a une scene de miracle et c'est alors qu'il prit conscience du danger que representait "le pouvoir des pretres". Sur la question des rapports entre les pretres et le peuple ainsi que sur le probleme des cultes, Robespierre modifia sa vision des choses et son attitude s'en ressentit. Outre une politique repressive a l'egard des pretres seditieux, Robespierre proposa deux moyens pour attenuer l'influence politique du "pouvoir des pretres". D'abord, le maintien des cultes, eu egard a l'interet qu'y attachent les gens du peuple. Ensuite, l'education populaire comme moyen pour balayer "l'ignorance", c'est-a-dire l'etat ou les moeurs populaires ne coincident pas avec les principes du nouveau regime. Robespierre pensait que les fetes nationales en faisant appel a l'emotion d'un peuple analphabete constituaient un bon moyen pedagogique. Cependant, les fetes avaient elles memes un aspect ambigu et leur organisation etait liee a la maniere dont Robespierre concevait la situation generale. 2.Au debut de la dictature jacobine quand sevissait la Vendee, Robespierre s'opposait a la liberte des cultes et il n'etait pas question pour lui de fetes. Cette attitude changea partiellement lorsque des rapports commencerent a annoncer la defaite des Vendeens et quand le projet de Lepeletier fut rejete, c'est a dire vers la fin octobre, debut novembre 1793. Mais son changement reel d'attitude date du mouvement de dechristianisation. Pensant que la dechristianisation etait un piege tendu par l'ennemi pour reveiller les fanatismes en s'attaquant aux croyances ancrees dans le peuple, Robespierre non seulement se porta defenseur de la liberte des cultes mais craignant une provocation ennemie visant a diviser l'opinion francaise, il proposa l'organisation de fetes nationales qu'il considerait comme un moyen pour ressouder la societe. En outre, Robespierre qui estimait que la dechristianisation en bannissant Dieu, finirait par corrompre la morale publique, proclama l'existence d'un Dieu ou Etre Supreme, ceci devant permettre la regeneration des moeurs du peuple et le retablissement de la morale publique. C'est ainsi que fut decretee la fete en l'honneur de l'Etre Supreme.
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  • Mikio Muraoka
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 42-69,141-142
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Yakushiji Temple in Yamato Province controlled Kendan (the police and criminal justice) over the residents of its nearby domain from at least the beginning of the fifteenth century. The author's analysis makes clear that there were two classifications of Kendan : assault and larceny. The case of assault consisted of assault and murder. Jike (the collegiate body of priests) inquired into the facts in detail. Whatever the reasons, the collegiate body imposed the same punishment upon the both sides of the parties involved. If fully proved, the punishment was to set fire to their houses (after forfeiture) and to deprive them of their honourable status as a resident in the estate (Zaimei). Kunin (lesser officials of Jike) executed these punishments. There were two occasions in the case of larceny ; i)those caught redhanded might be executed by the residents on the spot, and the collegiate body would sanction the execution ex post facto ; ii)if the offender escaped, the collegiate body initiated Kendan following a complaint by the residents. Jike demanded firm evidence in this case. Sentences entailed punishment of the convict by setting fire to his house and by beheading (or, if reprieved, by banishment). The latter penalties, which were never adopted in the assault cases, were executed by the humble caste called Hinin or Shiku who were not members of Jike. The Tsutsui family, who had gained power in Yamato Province by the midsixteenth century, began to erode the Jike's jurisdiction. But it remained in the hands of Jike to punish an offender by forfeiture of his property and by setting fire on his house. The author's analysis leads to the conclusion that Jike's Kendan limited itself to non-corporal punishments, e.g. burning houses. This helped prevent assault and theft cases developing into public disorders. Jike's willingness to make inquiry in detail and to procure firm evidence also served a preventive function. However, these punishments were not effective enough to inhibit felonious larceny. Therefore in addition, Jike turned to the moral damnation of offenders (Roumei), but this also had little effect. Effective corporal punishment was needed and the residents were unable to establish self-government. It was Tsutsui family who emerged in the gap to take the initiative in organizing criminal justice and corporal punishment. The documents analysed include the Kendan minutes of Yakushiji and other Yakushiji papers.
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  • Hiromi Masuda
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 70-79
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Ryuichi Nagao
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 80-86
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Shigeo Nishimura
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 86-96
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Yoshinobu Aoyama
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 96-104
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 105-106
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 107-108
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 108-109
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 109-110
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 111-140
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 141-144
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (41K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (41K)
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