SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 97 , Issue 11
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Satoshi Urano
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1789-1828,1937-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This article attempts to answer the following three questions on angareia, a requisitioned transport service which was indispensable for military provisions (annona) transport, but was very burdensome for provincials in the later Roman Empire. First, how did measures and practice of the angareia-levy develop during the first three centuries? Secondly, what kinds of necessity or intention of the imperial authority existed behind its development? Thirdly, eventually what kinds of burdens did the provincials (especially villagers) have to bear? The results of the author's investigation through inscriptions from the eastern Roman provinces are as follows. (1)As Sagalassos-Inscription (JRS 66, pp. 107f.) tells us, in the early principate (AD. 1C.), angareia was regarded as the service assessed roughly at the distance between stations (i.e. from one station to the next others), and levied on each central city which was responsible for its own station, en bloc. The central city magistrates levied a portion of the service on each city and village within its territory. Subsequently, in the 2C. in provincia armata (e.g. Moesia Inf, ; Dagis -SEG xix 476), in the 3C. even in provimia inermis (e.g. Asia ; Anossa & Antimacheia -JRS 46, pp.46f.), angareia came to be counted as munera possessionis, assessed strictly in proportion to the amount of land tax (or rent) payments and directly levied on villages. Village notables made arrangements for this service. Only by giving soldier-officials the minor authority of execution could the Empire build up this levy system at the village level. (2)The Empire urged the aforementioned process more and more as tension mounted on the eastern frontier and armies on the march there needed huge amounts of provisions. Because the Empire had to strengthen the angareia-levy system so as to transport annona to the army's station. (3)Not only did the increase in the quantity of transported provisions force provincials into a miserable condition ; but also both the introduction of soldier-officials and the existing subordination of villages to cities caused abuses of power and unauthorized angareia levies on villages. Villagers were on the verge of ruin. It was not until Emperor Leo converted the angareia service into money payments (adaeratio) in order to meet the expenses of public transport (cursus publicus) that these two problems were resolved.
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  • Tamotsu Uejima
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1829-1868,1936-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Many attempts have been made to classify ancient and medieval documents written in Japanese. The method which best reflects the essential nature of the documents is classification according to the document style (様式). In Japan, the following document styles have been generally adopted : (1)Kushikiyo-monjo (公式様文書), (2)Kugeyo-monjo (公家様文書) and (3)Bukeyo-monjo (武家様文書). This method of classification corresponds to the three major political systems from ancient to medieval times, namely, (1)the Ritsuryo state (律令国家), (2)the aristocratic (Ocho) state (王朝国家) and (3)the warrior (Buke) political regime (武家政権). However, if we think of a particular document style as consisting of a common writing style (書式) and overall form, for example, not only do we find many differences between Kansenji (官宣旨) / Senji (宣旨) and Inzen (院宣) / Rinji (綸旨), which have been classified as Kugeyo-monjo (公家様文書), but we also fail to find any common features among these documents. The same is also true of documents classified under Bukeyo-monjo (武家様文書). Therefore, the author proposes that the following classification may be more. suitable : (1)Kushikiyo-monjo (公式様文書), (2)Kudashibumiyo-monjo (下文様文書) and (3)Shosatsuyo-monjo (書札様文書). The author attempts to confirm this point by investigating such aspects of writing style as (1)the sentence structure (文体), (2)the identification of the sender (差出書), (3)the name of the addressee (宛名), (4)the identification of official ranks (位署書) and (5)the method of signing the document (署名の仕方) ; such aspects of form as (6)the calligraphy style (書体), (7)how the paper is ornamented (紙面の飾り方), (8)the choice of paper type (料紙の使い方) and (9)how the sheets are pieced together (紙継目の固定の仕方) ; as well as such procedural practices as (10)the transmission of orders (遵行手続) and (11)rules for drafting the documents (書式作成手続規定). The classification proposed here corresponds to the division of the ancient and medieval state into (1)the Ritsuryo state (律令国家), (2)the early oligarchic (kenmon) state (前期権門国家) and (3)the later oligarchic state (後期権門国家).
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  • Toshie Awaya
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1869-1887
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Shinkichi Nagaoka
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1888-1896
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1897-1898
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1898-1899
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1899-1900
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1900-1901
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1901-1902
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1902-1903
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1903-1904
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1904-1905
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1906-1935
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages 1936-1938
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages App1-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages Cover3-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (28K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: November 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
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