SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 97 , Issue 6
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Takashi Aizawa
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1025-1062,1159-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Lange Zeit, vom Spatmittelalter bis zum Zeitalter des Absolutismus, wurden viele Luxusverordnungen erlassen, um die Verschwendung des Volkes zu unterdrucken. In der Forschung uber diese Luxusverordnungen wurde bislang betont, daB man die Standeordnung bzw. die Unterschiede zwischen den Standen, die sich in der Entwicklung der Verbrauchswirtschaft allmahlich verwischten, bewahren wollte. In neueren Forschungen werden dagegen die Luxusverordnungen, die in den Stadten erlassen wurden, von denen des Konigtums oder denen des Territorialstaats unterschieden. Vielmehr werden deren Eigenschaften zunehmend im Zusammenhang mit politischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Verhaltnissen in den Stadten untersucht, um ihre soziale Bedeutung von verschiedenen Seiten her herauszuarbeiten. Der vorliegende Aufsatz folgt diesem Ansatz und untersucht die in den suddeutschen Reichsstadten verfaBten Kleider-, Hochzeits- und Tanzordnungen des Spatmittelalters und der fruhen Neuzeit, um ihre Eigenschaften, ihre Entwicklung und ihre soziale Bedeutung zu erfassen. Stadtische Luxusverordnungen wurden jeweils erlassen, wenn der Stadtbehorde ein ubertriebener Verbrauch auffiel. Die Daten uber Umfang, Ausfuhrlichkeit und fruhestem Auftreten solcher Verordnung unterschieden sich je nach der GroBe der Stadte und dem Entwicklungsgrad der jeweiligen Wirtschaften. In einzelnen Stadten werden sie im Verlauf der Zeit inhaltlich immer differenzierter und systematischer. Ihre Auswirkung wurde durch die Vernachlassigung der oberen Schichten der Stadt und die Differenzierung des Wirtschaftslebens bestimmt, und die Stadtbehorden waren bestrebt, ihre Luxusverordnungen den zeitlichen Erfordernissen anzupassen, um deren Effizienz zu steigern. Das Spannungsverhaltnis zwischen der Wirklichkeit und den Luxusverordnungen ging so niemals verloren. Luxusverordnungen entstanden in einer Periode nachlassender Machtfulle alter Stadtgeschlechter und zunehmender Teilnahme der Burger am Stadtregiment. Die Stabilisierung der kommunalen Wirtschafts- und Sozialordnungen, das Festlegen stadtischer Lebensformen und das Feststellen der Identitat der Burger waren die Hauptziele. Zur Schaffung gemeindlicher Ordnung und Integration entstanden innerstadtische Gesellschaftsnormen, die alle Leute, die sich nicht anpassten, in eine randliche Existenz verdrangten. Luxusverordnungen hatten daruber hinaus die Funktion, deren Unterordnung sichtbar zu machen und die Rangordnung zwischen innerer und auBerer Seite der Gemeinde zu prazisieren. Gegen Ende des Mittelalters mehrten sich Bestimmungen, die standische Unterschiede nicht nur erlaubten, sondern sogar betonten, und Luxus wurde zunehmend benutzt, um einen hoheren Rang oder die Zugehorigkeit zu einem besseren Stand zur Schau zu stellen. Der ErlaB solcher Bestimmungen hangt mit dem Bemuhen der Stadtbehorden zusammen, die Luxusverordnungen den jeweiligen Zeiterfordernissen anzupassen, indem sie die Wunsche der Oberschicht berucksichtigten, sich durch Luxus bemerkbar zu machen. Aber durch sie wurde auch die neuentstandene Stande- und Herrschaftsverfassung nicht nur beibehaltan, sondern auch gestarkt, wurde doch die Vielfaltigkeit des Verbrauchs jetzt durch die Verfassung geregelt.
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  • Koichi Sakai
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1063-1082,1157-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    『元興寺事八衆中与門跡別当三方之入勝也』(All cases involving the district of Gango-ji will be decided by "irekachi" between the district secular council, the patriarch of Daijo-in, and the abbot of Gango-ji.) This entry from the medieval diary entitled Daijo-in Jisha Zojiki 大乗院寺社雑事記) indicates that with respect to enforcing the law (kendan 検断) in the Gango-ji district of the medieval city of Nara, a process called irekachi 入勝 (literally, the first party to arrive on the scene has the right to enact the law) was carried out among the three authorities governing the district. In this article the author attempts to clarify the actual patterns, basic character and historical significance of this unique law enforcement institution of irekachi. In the conventional research on irekachi, there are still at least three points that remain to be clarified. First, despite the entry 七郷八衆中使与寺務使入勝也 (irekachi occurred between the representatives of the district secular councils of Nara and the office of Temple affairs), scholars have contended that irekachi was geographically limited specifically to the Gango-ji district alone. Secondly, even though there are examples of irekachi being enacted in the case of minor offenses like illegal residency (kishuku-no-ka 寄宿の過), scholars have continued to insist that the institution was reserved specifically for inflicting wounds with a sword and murder. Finally, the previous research on the subject has failed to clarify the true reasons why such a unique custom was adopted. The present article focusses on these three problem points in an attempt to shed more light upon the acutal procedures making up irekachi and to discover the fundamental precedents of law enforcement rights in medieval Nara. However, due to the nature of the existing documentation on the subject the author first takes up points two and three using the case of Gango-ji district, and then, after establishing the conditions for the existence of "the irekachi system," goes into his discussion on problem point one. Concerning the actually nature of illegalities handled through irekachi, the author first investigates the problem of procedure. The main feature of the system was that the complete legal process was controlled from beginning to end by the legal enforcement agency that was first on the scene. This feature was also true for cases involving the jurisdiction of the aristocratic patriarch (monzeki 門跡) of Daijo-in himself. Furthermore, with regard to the crimes dealt with via irekachi, not only was it enacted in the cases of stealing, gambling and the "three great crimes" (san-ka-taibon 三ヶ大犯), but also in all kinds of minor incidents that occurred in and around the city of Nara. Concerning the particualar character of irekachi, after investigating the actual political power of and foundations underlying the rights of law enforcement agents in Nara, the author argues that there existed an overall balance of power between these agents, and that the fundamental rationale underlying the institution of irekachi lay in its effectiveness for satisfying on an equal basis the desire of these powers to rule the city. Moreover, irehachi was the only method of guaranteeing one incident / one agent unitary legal procedures. On the basis of the above discussion the author then introduces the three conditions underlying the existence of the "irekachi" system. Concerning the problem of geographic limitations, the author investigates these three existential conditions in relation to the law enforcement agents in the seven districts (shichigo 七郷) of Nara. After proving that both the office of Temple affairs and district secular councils did in fact fulfill these conditions, he concludes that irekachi was carried out by these two agencies in all seven of the districts ; and because these seven districts made up the greater part of Nara between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, we can be assured that irekachi
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  • Yoshiki Morimoto
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1083-1088
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Sanae Fukuto
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1089-1095
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Tadashi Nakamura
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1096-1103
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Tetsuzo Nakura
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1103-1112
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Osamu Nagashima
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1112-1121
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1121-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Madoka Kanai
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1122-1124
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1125-1126
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1126-1127
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (259K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1127-1128
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1128-1131
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (467K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1131-1132
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (262K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1132-1133
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1133-1134
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (277K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1134-1135
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1135-1136
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1136-1137
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (256K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1137-1138
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (254K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1138-1139
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1140-1156
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages 1157-1160
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages App1-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (45K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 6 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (45K)
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