SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 97 , Issue 9
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Chisato Kanda
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1481-1515,1630
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This article aims to shed some light upon faith or the concept of death in the medieval age through an examination of the characters and the functions of the place called dojo (道場). Many temples were, in this age, called dojo, a word which seems to have closely reflected what a religious place was in the minds of contemporaries. In the first place, the author, paying attention to the fact that dojo was a place for dying and sick persons, a place of execution, and that of the suicide by defeated warriors, shows that it was believed to be the spot which enabled the dead to be born again in jodo (浄土, the pure land), through an examination of honzon (本尊) to whom the dojo was sacred. Then the author surveys odorinenbutsu (踊念仏), music, and the inscription of one's name, which were carried out at dojo with the desire that one's death should admit him to be born again in jodo. Secondly, the author considers why dojo was an asylum for defeated warriors, or criminals wanted by the authorities. He points out the following two points: 1)these warriors or criminals fled to dojo to become monks, 2)these monks were forced to live, in order not to survive, but to accept at any time their death, under a strict subordination to the chishiki (知識, master). The author concludes that the situation of these monks enabled dojo to be recognized as an asylum. Lastly the author surveys the changes of dojo in succeeding ages.
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  • Sumio Takabatake
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1516-1537,1629-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    "How and to what extent did religion regulate the acts of the ancient Greeks?" This is the problem the author investigates in this paper. The most useful documents for this investigation are the works of Xenophon and the Attic orators, since they reflect the average religious mentality of the people. Studying these works, the author has found three main factors which strongly regulated the people's behaviour : oaths, oracles (with other divinations), and views about life after death. Concerning each factor he draws the following conclusions. (1)Oaths : Though referring to oaths frequently, the Greeks seem to have doubted divine punishment for perjury. But they could not break their oaths freely, because it caused great blame among the people. Many examples show that they could break them most easily with political intentions. (2)Oracles : While many examples show the people determined their acts according to oracles, some examples deny their blind faith in them. The author examines two examples which show their neglect of oracles (Xen. Hell. V. 4. 47 ; Aisch. III. 130-1 with scholia) and concludes that (i)they were forced to act as if they believed oracles, (ii)they distrusted them in practice, and (iii)those who distrusted them most were politicians and those who distrusted them least were soldiers (the author uses the terms, politicians and soldiers, as ideal types). (3)Views about life after death : The idea that no one can know about life after death may be pointed out as the one which regulate people's behaviour most effectively. Because of this idea they scarcely did or made anything for life after death. This idea also caused them to keep traditional rites. While admitting this idea, they considered the possible picture of life after death, from which the thought that an honourable death was preferable to a disgraceful life appeared. This thought also regulated people's (especially soldiers') acts, but not to a high degree. While admiring this thought, politicians themselves were hardly regulated by it. Through these investigations politicians are found to be unique. Their uniqueness must have been supported by the development of orations. The technique of orations developed to such an extent that orators could say anything including a matter of the gods, which made the intention of gods uncertain and thus weakened religious regulation. Besides this situation, owing to the continual political crises during this century people had to commit themselves to politics to some extent. As a result people came to stand more and more aloof from religious regulation, following the example of politicians.
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  • Jun-ichi Nagai
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1538-1555,1628-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The Interdepartmental Liaison Conference on Anti-Comintern and Counterintelligence Measures (hereafter, "the Conference") was established as a working-level conference in July, 1937, on the initiative of the Police Security Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs. It was one of a number of committees and other such entities arising at that time, outside the process of administrative reform. Other participants in the Conference were the Ministries of the Army, Navy, Foreign Affairs, Communications, Finance, Justice, Colonial Affairs and Education, the Bureau of Resources and the Bureau for Manchurian Affairs, the Committee on Intelligence, and Military Police Headquarters. Records are extant for four meetings of the Conference ; and there may only have been four. The Conference's existence was secret. The objective of this essay is twofold : First, by examining the structure and function of the Conference, the author delineates the actual measures undertaken in the exercise of its dual mandate. Secondly, the author attempts to place within a larger political context conditions obtaining within the Ministries of the Army and Home Affairs, which played leading roles in the exchange of information, etc., within the Conference. Among the Army representatives to the Conference was Iwakuro Hideo, who had been instrumental in the preparation of the Military Secrets Act reform bill recently submitted in the Diet. In Conference deliberations as well, the Army addressed chiefly matters relating to counterintelligence, seeking comprehensive measures for the preservation of military secrets even after passage of the reform bill. Previously, in the 69th Diet, deliberations on a General Mobilization and Preservation of Secrets Act, based on a concept of national security broadly defined, had ended inconclusively. Subsequent efforts to pass a Military Secrets Act reform bill represented a retreat to a concept of national security narrowly defined in accordance with the prerogative of supreme command. One may surmise that the Military Affairs Bureau of the Army Ministry, which was in charge of counterintelligence, saw the Conference as providing some compensation for this policy retreat. From the point of view of the Home Ministry, the original proponent of the Conference, it would appear that the Conference was envisioned as a Trojan horse for the standing committee provided for under Section III of the Protocol to the Japanese-German Anti-Comintern Pact. This was denied by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but may nevertheless be inferred from the subsequent dispatch to Rome of a Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs with the objective of establishing just such a committee. The committee was never in fact established. The Conference thus provides a perspective on the ineffectiveness of the Anti-Comintern Pact. A further point of interest is that among the other governmental agencies represented in the Conference, the Ministries of Communication, Justice and Education, and some others, thanks to current administrative reforms, had parallel sections perfectly suited to participation in the Conference, and participated actively. The Conference was succeeded by a Committee on Counterintelligence established in December, 1938 ; a consideration of that committee will be undertaken in a separate article.
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  • Yoshio Asai
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1556-1564
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Isao Higashide
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1565-1573
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1574-1575
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1575-1576
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1576-1579
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1579-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1580-1581
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1581-1582
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1582-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (147K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1583-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1584-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1585-1625
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages 1626-1630
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages Cover3-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 97 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1988
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
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