SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 98 , Issue 12
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages Cover1-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages Cover2-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Akihiro Watanabe
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1891-1937,2050-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Movements of fudokoku 不動穀 (rice reserves) are one good indicator of the economy under the ritsuryo state. According to the conventional view, the Tenpyo 天平 era (729-749) has been considered the high of point of the Japanese ancient state based in part on the understanding that fudokoku stores accumulated to an amount equal to the 田租 (the rice tax on publically allocated land) for 30 years to come, or the total rice crop for one year. What has not yet been considered, however, is what led to the decline in the institution. In the present paper, the author first deals with whether the fudokoku stores were indeed really at their peak quantities during the Tenpyo era, and then attempts to show that because fudokoku expenditures were increasing throughout the 9th century, these reserves probably reached a maximum around the end of 8th century. In addition to increasing expenditures during the 9th century, such appropriations as nenryo soshomai 年料租春米 and nenryo betsuno sokoku 年料別納租穀 began to be deducted from the 田租 before it entered the storehouse, resulting in a decline in reserves from both the revenue and expenditure sides of the ledger, to the extent that we notice the fudokoku system in danger of bankruptcy during the Kanpyo 寛平 era (889-898). With a decline of even the storehouses holding fudokoku, the whole system had to be revamped. The present paper begins with the story beginning in the 10th century and the proceeds backwards to trace what happened to fudokoku, in an attempt to clarify one aspect of the process of change within the Japanese ancient state as a whole. A document entitled Etchu-no-Kuni Kanso Nokoku Kotai-ki 越中国官倉納穀交替記, an accounting record of the official storehouse of Etchu province, is a very valuable source material for ascertaining the accumulation of fudokoku over the 160 years from the beginning of the Tenpyo to the end of Kanpyo era. An analysis of this document shows not only exactly how fudokoku was accumulated, but also that the quantity steadily increased, with the exception of two eras of stagnant rice production (Tenpyo and Enryaku 延暦 [782-806]), up until the end of 9th century. However, a period of increased expenditures including huge outlays for building the Heian capital and pacifying the borderpeoples in the north was ushered in. Through a process of fixing the amounts of special appropriations (betsuno 別納) from the rice tax and designating the remainder as fudoso, finally in 964 a new system was instituted. With this new way of appropriating the rice revenues coming in from the provinces, fudokoku was maintained in name only, but it was soon abandoned altogether when during the third decade of 11th century a system of uniform levies on the provinces was established. However, the memory of the time when fudokoku was appropriated according to the whims of the central government lived on until the end of the 14th century in the ceremonial submittal by a newly appointed provincial governor of a formal petition, entitled fudoso kaiken shinsei-ge 不動倉開検申請解, requesting that the fudokoku storehouse be opened for expection.
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  • Keiko Yamada
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1938-1960,2049-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The federal system of India today is composed of linguistic states, corresponding to a linguistic division of the population, which emerged through general states reorganization in 1956. The idea of state reorganization on a linguistic basis in the preindependence era had been embodied from the 1920's through the "divide and ruie" policy adopted by the British government, and was taken up by the Indian National Congress out of the practical necessity to activate a national movement and to placate the muslim population. After independence, the INC shelved the issue on the grounds that linguistic states would pose a menace to national integration. The reorganization of the linguistic states in 1956, however, materialized because of the emergence of the state of Andhra in 1953, which had come into existence only after the fast and ensuing death of an agitator, and out of economic convenience to accomplish the 5 years' plan effectively. Andhra state, which led the states reorganization on a linguistic basis, was the consequence of the Andhra movement, which had been rising since the beginning of the 20th century in Andhra region, a part of the Madras Precidency, where Telugh language was spoken. The Telugu area was divided into Madras Precidency and Hyderabad Princery state. The Telugus were in the minority compared with the Tamils in Madras Precidency, and remained underdeveloped under the Muslim rulers in Hyderabad. In 1953 the Andhra region seceded from Madras state and named their territory Andhra state. Then Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1956, a united Telugu state annexing the Telugu area in Telangana. However, there emerged a strong demand for a separate Telangana state in 1968 led by people discontented with the economic imbalance. Why did such separatism have to take place in Andhra Pradesh, which was considered as the pioneer and model linguistic state in free India? The consistent phenomenon through Andhra Movement was the ascent of the castes on the political scene. The Andhra Movement was started by Telugu Brahman, and the largest landed non-Brahman caste groups, the Reddy and Kamma, participated in the movement during late 20's and 30's. In particular, the Reddy, widely spread throughout the Telugu area, came to power, which enable surpass the Brahmans, because they were reorganized and united by the emergence of a united Telugu state. Moreover, after Andhra Pradesh was formed, the people who belonged to the minor castes and factions gained influence in state politics and led a movement to agitate for a separate Telangana state. In short, the Andhra Movement was represented the ascent of the Reddy carried out around the symbol of Telugu language ; and the Telangana Separatists Movement was represented the ascent of the minor castes caused by economic imbalance. Thus, the inconsistent tendency to form and disunite the linguistic state can be seen in the consistent one of the steady ascent of castes.
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  • Akimasa Miyake
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1961-1968
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Chiyuki Oto, Takashi Minamikawa
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1969-1981
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1982-2024
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 2025-2026
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 2026-2027
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 2027-2028
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 2028-2029
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 2030-2046
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 2047-2050
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1-11
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 5-1
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages App1-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages Cover3-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages Cover4-
    Published: December 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
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