SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 98 , Issue 3
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages Cover1-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages Cover2-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Hidenao Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 295-331,452
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In this paper the author studies two subjects. First, he considers the connection between Japanese modern history and the political conflicts the Korea Policy at the time of the Koshin Incident. Second, he reconsiders the popular view that in the Meiji Era the Japanese Government had consistently made it a fundamental policy to conquer Korea. He consequently surveys the process by which the Japanese Government formulated its Korea Policy in the cabinet councils soon after the Jingo Incident 壬午事変 (1882) to after the defeat in the Koshin Incident. He then analyses the attitudes of the major factional powers (the Choshu clan 長閥, the Satsuma clan 薩閥, the militant journalism faction represented by Fukuzawa Yukichi 福沢諭吉 and the Emperor). He comes to the following conclusion. During this time there were two attitudes toward the Korea Policy. On the one hand, the Choshu clan had been expanding its influence in Korea without going to war with Chi'ng China. On the other hand, the Satsuma clan had been trying to gain over political control of Korea, and was prepared to go to war with China. After the Jingo Incident, the Choshu policy took priority over that of Satsuma. But after the Koshin Incident, the latter came to contend with the former for acceptance. Under these circumstances, the alternatives open to the Japanese Government were between peace and war, but this diplomatic conflict was at the same time a struggle between the Satsuma clan and the Choshu clan.
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  • Ritsu Ijuin
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 332-373,451-44
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Theodor Heuss bezeichnete im Jahre 1932 die nationalsozialistische Parteiorganisation als eine "burokratisierte Romantik". Bei den nationalsozialistischen Parteibeamten sei es schwer, zwischen denjenigen, die die Entscheidung treffen, und denjenigen, die die Entscheidung durchfuhren, zu trennen, und kaum moglich, zwischen den politischen und ideologischen Fuhrer und den Fachkenntnis besitzenden Verwaltungsbeamten klar zu unterscheiden. Deshalb behaupteten die wirtschaftspolitischen Hauptabteilungen der NSDAP ihre ideologische Eigenstandigkeit und verfassten auf ihre eigene Wirtschaftstheorie bezogene Wirtschaftsprogramme. Der 'Keppler Kreis' hatte als eine Parteiorganisation einen vollig anderen Charakter als die von Gregor Strasser errichtete Parteiburokratie. Dies bezieht sich nicht nur darauf, daB er nach Hitlers personlicher Anweisung ad hoc gebildet worden war, sondern auch darauf, daB er ein nach aussen geoffneter, d.h. auch nicht-Parteimitglieder einbeziehender ParteiausschuB war. Nach Errichtung dieses nach aussen offenen Parteigremiums begann sich sogleich der Widerspruch zwischen Industrie und Landwirtschaft in dem Verhaltnis zwischen der Gruppe Industrie und der Gruppe Landwirtschaft innerhalb der NSDAP deutlicher wiederzuspiegeln. Dietrich von Stetten, Darres Verbindungsmann zum 'Keppler Kreis', berichtete ihm, daB im 'Keppler Kreis' "die landwirtschaftliche Seite nur verhaltnismassig stiefmutterlich behandelt" werde. Die Gruppe Landwirtschaft versuchte deshalb mit Einwilligung Darres, den EinfluB der Landwirtschaft im 'Keppler Kreis' zu verstarken und gegen Ende 1932 eine ahnliche Stelle wie den 'Keppler Kreis', das 'Buro Darre', im Haus des Reichslandbundes in Berlin zu errichten. Dieser Plan, dem sogar Hjalmar Schacht zustimmte, wurde aber nicht verwirklicht. Bei der Eingabe an den Reichsprasidenten Hindenburg zogerte Darre am Anfang, mit dem 'Keppler Kreis' zusammenzuarbeiten. Erst am 17. November 1932, als Papen zurucktrat, gestand er von Stetten seine Zusammenarbeit zu. Allgemein gesagt, gab es keine starke positive Einstellung fur die vorwiegend von Industrieleuten beherrschte Eingabe im Lager der Landwirtschaft. Graf von Kalckreuth machte eine Ausnahme. Von landwirtschaftlicher Seite entschieden sich die meisten Unterzeichner der Eigabe erst nach dem 17. November, sie zu unterschreiben. Hermann Luninck, Oettingen-Wallerstein und Frau von Schilcher sagten jedoch ab. Bei Hitlers Verhandlungen mit Hindenburg uber seine Ernennung zum Reichskanzler Ende November 1932 blieb Darre als einzige der wichtigen Personen der NSDAP in Munchen. Aus der Tatsache, daB Darre ausserhalb des damaligen Tumults im Kaiserhof in Berlin stand, vermuteten Werner Willikens, Herbert Backe und von Stetten, die von sich aus eine kleine Arbeitsgruppe 'Habsburger Kreis' gebildet hatten, daB Hitler einen MiBmut gegenuber Darre hege. Sie berieten Anfang Dezember daruber, anstelle von Darre Walther Granzow zum neuen Vertrauensmann der "Argrarier" bei Hitler zu machen. Durch das plotzliche Ausscheiden Strassers am 8. Dezember entwickelte sich eine neue Etappe im Verhaltnis der Gruppe Landwirtschaft zu der Gruppe Industrie innerhalb der NSDAP. Schon spat am Abend, als Strassers Austrittsbrief den "Fuhrer" erreichte, machte dieser die Ressorts der Landwirtschaft (Darre) und der Volksbildung (Goebbels) selbstandig. "Dies", deutete Darre selbst, sei "einmal eine Anerkennung fur die vom aA (agrarpolitischen Apparat -R.I.) bisher geleitete Arbeit, zum anderen aber auch das offentliche Bekenntnis des Fuhrers zur Bedeutung des Bauerntums als Grundlage eines Staates und als Blutserneuerungsquelle des Volkes." Hitler machte zwar die landwirtschaftliche Abteilung unter Darre selbstandig, entzog aber Darre alle Personalverwaltungsrechte des aA im Amt fur

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  • Shin-ichiro Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 374-388,449-44
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the movements of the vassals (hikan 被官) who served under the Rokuhara Tandai 六波羅探題, and therefore understand the significance of this representative of the Kamakura Bakufu stationed the capital of Kyoto. According to the principles for policing the capital, both Kamakura Bakufu vassals stationed in Kyoto (zaikyonin 在京人) and the Tandai's vassals were probably mobilized under the police commander (kendan tonin 検断頭人), who was also a vassal of the Tandai. Not only within the Capital itself, but also in the adjacent provinces of the Kinai region "Rokuhara's" policing activities were mainly executed by the same kendan tonin. And, it seems that other Rokuhara hikan, as well, were given authority to lead Kyotobased Kamakura vassals. This peacetime policing function of "Rokuhara" would take on the military posture of the "Rokuhara" army in times of crisis. And during these times as well both the kendan tonin and other authorized Rokuhara hikan would assume military leadership over zaikyonin. Moreover, whenever the Rokuhara Tandai held at the same time the Bakufu appointment of shugo 守護 (provincial constable), all of his hikan would also serve as deputy constables (shugo-dai 守護代). Especially in the Kinai region this rule greatly bolstered the power and authority of the Tandai. Essentially the position of Rokuhara Ryoshi 両使 was occupied by either a zaikyonin or a bugyonin 奉行人 (Bakufu functionary) ; however, during the last years of the Kamakura period Rokuhara Tandai vassals began to participate in the Ryoshi insititution through the form of ryoshi ippo shugo-dai 両使一方守護代 (Ryoshi cum deputy-constable). "Rokuhara" organized Kyoto-based Kamakura vassals as one link in its rule over Western Japan. One more step was its not always successful attempt to subsume zaikyonin and bugyonin personally under the Tandai as his hikan. From the above discussion, the author concludes that one important aspect of "Rokuhara" was its role as an institutional base for gaining control over the Western provinces by placing vassals tied to the Hojo family in key policing and military positions.
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  • Tatsuya Tsuji
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 389-396
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Satoshi Matsumura
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 396-407
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 407-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 408-409
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 409-411
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 411-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 412-413
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 413-414
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 414-415
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 416-417
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 417-418
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 419-447
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages 448-452
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages App1-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages Cover3-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 3 Pages Cover4-
    Published: March 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
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