SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 98 , Issue 4
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (22K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (22K)
  • Takao Moriyasu
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 453-487,602-60
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    La classification des documents en turc ancien par dialectes, proposee par W.Radloff et elaboree par A. von Gabain, restait generalement admise jusqu'a ce que, en 1970, G.Hazai et P.Zieme publierent en collaboration un article ou ils notaient les elements du dialecte y dans les textes manicheens passant jusqu'alors pour ecrits en dialecte n. De ce fait, ils soutenaient que la distinction entre les deux "dialectes" n'etait pas en realite si nette que on l'avait supposee. Des lors, les turcologues ont eu tendance a contester la classification des dialectes supposee par A. von Gabain. Si bien que, par exemple, J.P.Laut a propose le nom de "texte n", qu'il qualifie de "preclassique", en l'opposant au "koine ouigour" (:dialecte y) qu'il qualifie de "classique". Je voudrais me rallier a ces derniers, qui ont vu dans ces variations linguistiques l'expression non d'une diversite geographique (ou dialectale) mais d'une evolution chronologique d'une langue. Je crois, en effet, pouvoir signaler un fait paleographique (une distinction entre -q et -r) qui corroborerait ce point de vue. Aussi proposons nous par ailleurs d'employer desormais le terme "idiome" au lieu de celui de "dialecte", pour etre plus corrects. Ecrits en idiome y, la plupart des textes bouddhiques en turc ancien appartiennent a une epoque relativement tardive (epoque des Yuan, en gros). Peu nombreux sont les textes bouddhiques tenus comme "anciens" par les turcologues. Je les ai enumeres dans mon article ((a)〜(p)). Le turc ancien de ces textes bouddhiques "anciens", dont plusieurs, provenant de la Bibliotheque de la Grotte de Touen-houang, peuvent etre dates des alentours du X^e siecle, porte a un degre variable les caracteristiques de l'idiome n^^~ / n. Ces textes se distinguent, en outre, des autres textes bouddhiques par les quatre points suivants : (1)La proportion relativement elevee des termes parvenus par l'intermediaire du sogdien, bien que, comme on le sait, les termes qui sont venus du tokharien y soient beaucoup plus nombreux. (2)Plusieurs de ces textes sont supposes, avec plus ou moins de certitude, traduits d'originaux tokhariens. (3)Nombreux sont ceux en forme de cahier et ecrits horizontalement -cas rare pour les textes bouddhiques. (4)Plusieurs de ces textes emploient comme signe de ponctuation un point en noir entoure d'une ligne ovale en rouge. On le trouve parfois redouble, avec les deux motifs en forme de noeud de papillon. Depuis la conversion au Manicheisme, en 763, du troisieme Qaran ouigour Mou-yu 牟羽, la religion sogdienne par excellence - le Manicheisme - acquit, pour ainsi dire, le statut prestigieux de "religion d'Etat" de l'Empire des Ouigours Orientaux. Chose remarquable, proteges par cet Empire qui soumit la region des T'ien-chan de l'Est dans la seconde moitie du VIII^e siecle et la premiere moitie du IX^e, les Iraniens manicheens de cette region (dont la piupart etaient bien entendu des Sogdiens) s'adonnaient energiquement a la traduction des textes manicheens en turc. Plus de la moitie des nombreux manuscrits manicheens decouverts a Tourfan, quoique non dates, nous semblent bien appartenir a cette epoque. La plupart des textes manicheens en turc sont en idiome n^^~ / n. Les langues supposees originales de ces textes etaient presque sans exception moyen-iraniennes (a savoir, le sogdien, le moyen-perse, et le parthe). Ecrits en meme idiome n^^~ / n, les manuscrits bouddhiques "anciens" ont trois caracteristiques en commun avec ces textes manicheens en turc : (1)de nombreux mots empruntes au sogdien ; (2)ils sont souvent en forme de cahier et ecrits horizontalement ; (3)l'emploi du signe de ponctuation special (un point en noir entoure d'une ligne ovale en rouge). Par

    (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

    Download PDF (2587K)
  • Michihiko Kobayashi
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 488-523,600-60
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Conventional understanding about the 1907 Japanese government's "Imperial Defense Policy" may be summarized in the following three points. 1)This policy shows the extent of the "political independence" of the "military" after the Russo-Japanese War. 2)The conflict between army's "state of Asia" position and the navy's "island empire" position was not dissolved by this policy. 3)Therefore, the army's demand for 25 divisions and the navy's demand for 8 battleships and 8 armour-clad cruisers, an "excessive" military buildup, were both included in the section which outlined military power necessary for national defense. This article aims at reconsidering the above conventional evaluation of the "Imperial Defense Policy", through examining the 'defense environment' and the process by which the post Russo-Japanese War military buildup policy was formed. The author's conclusions are as follows. 1)After the Russo-Japanese War, the "defense environment" became very favorable for Japan because of the virtual disarmament of the Russian navy and of Japan's obtaining a lease over Kwantung region (northeastern China). Under this "new situation", the supreme commanders of the army and the navy shifted from a defensive to an offensive position, in their "1906 Strategic Plan for Imperial Army". Up until this time such a "Plan" was annually formulated upon a hypothetical attack on the Japanese mainland. In contrast, from this time, they began to plan an attack on Mainland China. It should be also noted that both the army and the navy regarded Russia as a real enemy. 2)The favorable turn which took place in the 'defense environment' influenced the planning of the Military Armament Management Plan. Due to the Russian army's retreated from Manchuria more speedily than Japan had expected, a compromise was struck between Yamagata's demand for 25 peace time divisions and Kodama's demand for 19 ; and the army's expansion target was put at 20 divisions for the time being. Due to the disappearance of an urgent "threat" from Russia, and the Russian ships which Japan got as spoils of war, naval strength was maintained as that expansion of the level. 3)The "Imperial Defense Policy" was formulated under close cooperation between the army and the navy. In order to respond to the "new situation" after the Russo-Japanese war, the conception of "small imperialism" was discarded, and the army was conceptualized as a direct military force assuring the maintenance and expansion of the Japanese interests on the Continent, while the navy was put in the context of an assisting force in such expantion through securing sea-lanes to the Continent. In terms of the necessary military force, 19 peacetime divisions and 5 battleships and 7 armour-clad cruisers were decided as the consequence negotiations between the military and the Ministry of Finance. In other words, this decision on the amount of armaments was realized only after agreement was received from the civil government. Therefore, the civilian part of the government did have something to do with this decision. Consequently, the process of deciding the "Imperial Defense Policy" does not prove the political autonomy of the "military" at that time.
    Download PDF (2815K)
  • Saburosuke Tanabe
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 524-529
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (576K)
  • Kazuo Sugiyama
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 529-534
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (607K)
  • Hideyuki Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 534-543
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (961K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 544-545
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (239K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 545-546
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (255K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 546-547
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (264K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 547-548
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (251K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 548-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (147K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 548-550
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (322K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 550-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (51K)
  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 551-599
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (3463K)
  • Type: Article
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 600-604
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (284K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (68K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 1989
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
feedback
Top