Extender pigments (Tonoko, Sabituti, Zinoko, ) have been used as wood filler for wood. finish over the past many years. The author elected 13 sorts of extender pigments for this experiment. These samples are studied by differential thermal analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, grain size analysis, infra-red absorption spectras, X-ray diffraction patterns, and electron micrographs. 1) It became clear by chemical analysis that these samples contained such clay minerals. as Si02, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and K2O. 2) As the results of grain analysis, grain size below 5μ distributed over 30%. 3) Differential thermal analysis curves of No.12 and No.13 samples had endthermic peaks at nearly 600°C. Therefore these samples were clearly recognized as Kaolin mineral. Other samples showed unclear peaks of endotherm and exotherm. 4) Thermal gravimetric analysis on the samples of No.12 and No.13 showed remarkable decrease under the temperature between 400°C and 600°C. Especially the sample of No.13 agreed with decrease of Kaolin minerals. Other samples did not show significant decrease. 5) It was confirmed by infra-red absorption bands of nearly 3,710 cm-1 and 3,625-3,630 cm-1 that the samples except No.10 contained Kaolin mineral and mica mineral. 6) By X-ray diffraction patterns, mica mineral was found in all samples. Kaolin mineral was found in all samples except No.10. Quartz was found in all samples except No.4 ; Felspar was found in No.4, No.5, No.12 and No.13 ; Chlorite in No.1, No.2 and No.5 ; Cristobalite in No.10 and montmorillonite in No.4.
The influence of the characteristic properties of carbon black on the adsorption (at 25°C) of non-ionic surfactants from aqueous solution on wet oxidized carbon black was studied. Polyoxyethylene octyl phenyl ether (OP-n) and polyoxyetylene nonyl phenyl ether (NP-n) in which n indicates the mole number of ethylene oxide were used as the surfactants. The wet oxidization of carbon black (furnace type) was carried out with nitric acid. Measurements were made on the characteristic properties of these carbon blacks such as the surface area, the specific gravity, the bulk, the pH, the functional groups on the surface, the amount of the total oxygen, the liquid adsorption and the hydrophilicity. The results obtained were as follow : In proportion to oxidizing condition, the amount of the total acidic groups (carboxyls and phenolic hydroxyls), that of a strong acidic groups (carboxyls), the total oxygen and the hydrophilicity increased, and the pH value decreased. However, the amount of a weak acidic groups (phenolic hydroxyls) increased by less oxidization (1 N-HNO3, 50°C), and decreased by more oxidizing condition. The linear relationship was observed between the amount of the total oxygen and the hydrophilicity. Adsorption of non-ionic surfactants on these carbon blacks followed the Langmuir's isotherm. The amount of adsorption of surfactants on carbon blacks decreased with increase of the total oxygen. In the case of the same lipophilic group of surfactants, the amount of adsorption decreased with increase of n. The area occupied per a molecule of surfactant calculated from the amount of saturated adsorption was much greater than the value on gas-liquid interface. The area occupied per a molecule was linearly proportional to the hydrophilicity.