The spherulites of calcium sulfite hemihydrate and the crystals of calcium sulfite tetrahydrate were produced at low temperatures when a small amount of sodium triphosphate, sodium pyrophosphate or disodium hydrogenphosphate was added to the semibatchwise heterogeneous reaction system of calcium hydroxide and sulfur dioxide. The order of the magnitude of the function of additives to accelerate the formation of spherulite and tetrahydrate crystal was as follows : sodium triphosphate>sodium pyrophosphate>disodium hydrogenphosphate. The spherulites which have multilayered-structure were produced when a small amount of phosphate described above was added to the system by repetition of the semibatchwise heterogeneous reaction (5°C). The spherulites were also synthesized in good yields from sulfur dioxide and milk of lime containing a small amount of above-mentioned phosphate by continuous heterogeneous reaction at 5°C
The chromatographic separation mechanism of dyes and the flow of eluent using dye as tracer through the centrifugal liquid chromatograph has been investigated. The locus of flow of dye in eluent through filler showed the concentric circular flow consisted with no angular component, but, only of radical component. Presuming the fillers are composed of the differential cylindrical elements with an equal volume arranged in the concentric circular form and each element acts as the effective plate in the column chromatography. The mechanism of the chromatographic separation of dyes through the centrifugal chromatograph are reasonably explained by the quasi-plate-theory in column chromatography. The partition coefficient obtained from the above-mentioned theory showed the reasonable agreement with the ones obtained from the experimental adsorption isotherms of the dyes on the filler from solution.
Creep behavior for printing ink films at various drying stages was examined in order to investigate the effects of structural change of ink films on the mechanical properties and clarify the mechanisms on ink drying. As ink films are not so tough as other plastic films, a chemical balance was modified for creep measurement. One of sample inks is an ordinary offset litho ink (S-1), and another is the offset ink for printing on flexible plastic films (S-2), and the others is the offset ink for metal plate (S-3). With increasing drying time, the values of creep compliance J (t) and steady state compliance Je become smaller, on the other hand creep viscosity η become larger. It is thought that intermolecular cross-linking due to oxidative polymerization occur in the course of ink drying, and then the three dimensional networks in the system become closer with increasing drying time. The values of Je for S-1 ink films are twice those for S-2 ink films, although the values of η for S-2 ink films are about 10 times those for S-1 ink films. Therefore, irreversible flow deformation seems to be dominant factor for creep behavior of S-1 ink films, whereas S-2 ink films behave more elastically. It is deduced that the network structure of S-1 ink films consists of highly cross-linked linkage, but the structure of networks may be very weak and broken down easily. However the same cross-linkage also exists in S-2 ink films, the mechanical properties of S-2 ink films may depend on the durable network structure due to the tight association of disperse medium. Although S-3 ink films are more durable comparing with other ink films, non-linear creep behavior was observed under large stress. The non-linear viscoelastic behavior of hardened ink films may be dependent on the process of breaking down the weak network structure and loss of contact between dispersed particles and disperse medium.