For treating paper with a methyltrimethoxysilane oligomer to improve its tensile strength after hydrolysis and poly-condensation of the oligomer, three types of treatment solutions were prepared which consisted of titanium butoxide, a standard amount of hydrochloric acid and a five-times excess amount of hydrochloric acid. The paper treated with titanium butoxide had a dramatically improved tensile strength compared to the base paper, and it reacted with the oligomer not in the ratio of 1 : 1, but as a reaction accelerator. Both hydrochloric acid catalyst solutions, on the other hand, turned the treated paper brown and decreased its tensile strength. Especially, the decrease was quite significant when an excess amount of acid was used. The FT-IR spectra of the acid treated paper showed the absorption at 1720 cm−1 attributed to a carbonyl group resulting from the oxidation of cellulose, meaning that the cellulose molecules were decomposed by the acid, and this decomposition caused the decreased tensile strength. This result showed that the treatment solution consisting of hydrochloric acid could not be applied to paper due to its deterioration. On the other hand, the solution consisting of titanium butoxide could be successfully applied to it with a further improvement in its tensile strength.
A simple, fast and selective method for determination of chromium (VI) in ink of chromium (III) complex dye is described. The proposed method is based on anion-exchange solid-phase extraction, in which chromium (VI) was separated after shaking for 1 min from the mixture of MIBK of the ink and a 20 mL of 0.1 and 8M nitric acid at room temperature. Under the optimized experimental conditions, chromium (VI) of black and red ink samples was determined by ICP-AES, and the recoveries for chromium (VI) were 104 and 107%, respectively. This method is applicable to extract only chromium (VI) from chromium (III) matrix such as chromium complex dye.
Surfactant molecules can form self-assembled structures in aqueous solution and give various functions to the solution. Recently, it was found that wormlike micelle which is a kind of molecular assembly of surfactant can be formed with several mixed surfactant systems. In this review, we described the formations of wormlike micelles with mixtures of cationic and nonionic surfactants, and with sucrose fatty acid systems. The formations of a temperature-insensitive wormlike micellar solution were also mentioned. Recently, liquid crystal based gel-emulsion which has highly viscous continuous phase has been reported. We described O/I1 gel-emulsion formed by a polyglyceryl fatty acid ester and O/H1 gel-emulsion formed by a poly(oxyethylene)alkyl ether. We also mentioned the transparent gel-emulsion by adding glycerol to O/H1 gel-emulsion.
In this context, development of a novel emulsion method and a novel detergent are presented as examples of studies using surfactant self-organized structure. In addition, phase diagram determination method that helps understand solution behavior of surfactant is represented in order to introduce practically useful knowledge. The emulsification method is presented as examples of development by means of phase study. The novel cleansing oil that is developed through detailed analysis of cleansing process of customers is presented as a development of detergent by means of phase study.
Recently, we found spontaneous formation of metal nanoparticles by simply mixing of metal salt solutions with poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) block copolymer solutions at ambient temperature in the absence of any other reducing agent. Namely, PEO-PPO block copolymers act in tandem as the reductants for metal ions and stabilizers for metal nanoparticles formed in solutions. This paper introduces the mechanism of metal ion reduction by PEO-PPO block copolymers in solutions, size/shape control of metal nanoparticles formed and one-pot synthesis of bimetallic nanomaterials using PEO-PPO block copolymers in solutions.
In this report, we controlled quantity of the hydrophilic surfactant maximally by employing minute O/W type emulsion which used high pressure homogenizer for primary emulsification and showed that this method improved stability of the O/W/O type emulsion. We also showed that a polymer surfactant polyoxyethylene (30) dipolyhydroxystearate (PEDS) helped preparing a new (O1+O2)/W/O3 type emulsion. For the preparation of the new emulsion, O/W/O type emulsion and (O1+O2)/W type emulsion, where O1 and O2 has different compositions and particle diameters, were combined. A possibility of the control release of the included oil-soluble ingredients in the new emulsion was discussed and effective utilization of surfactants in the O/W/O type emulsion was explained.