Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions composed of hydrocarbon oil (octane, dodecane and hexadecane) as a continuous phase were colloidally stabilized with the addition of vegetable oil (soybean oil) to the hydrocarbon oil even in the absence of any emulsifiers such as surfactants and amphiphilic polymers. For example, the turbidity of the emulsifier-free (EF-) W/Octane emulsions did not remain at 2 h after preparation while the turbidity of EF-W/Octane emulsions containing soybean oil with weight fraction of 0.2 in oil blend (octane and soybean oil) remained even at 12 h after preparation. Namely, the colloidal stability of EF-W/Octane emulsions was increased with the addition of soybean oil to octane. The colloidal stability of EF-W/Octane emulsions was enhanced with increase in the content of soybean oil in octane. Furthermore, we found that the colloidal stability of EF-W/Octane emulsions was increased with the addition of higher fatty acid (linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid) to octane.
Performance of propanediol amide type silicone as a pigment dispersing agent for cosmetics was examined. The amphiphilic polymer proved good pigment dispersibility in cosmetic oil, superior to those of existing polymer, along with the remarkable adhesiveness to skin. In particular, it was excellent in suppressing the aggregation of red iron oxide particle which is known to be very prone to cause flocculation. When incorporated into a model lipstick composition, it improved the dispersibility of pigments, which lead a reduction in the color difference between the appearance of the stick and its applied color. Further, the polymer did not cause a problem of lowering the hardness of lipstick which often occurs with various pigment dispersing agents.
Inkjet printing has progressed a lot as a state-of-the-art technology along with the innovation of electronics. Accordingly, it is expected that the conventional printers should be replaced quickly with inkjet ones in the textile fields. Printer manufactures have announced many times about the technical news focused on printing machines, whereas the conventional printing mills, which will be main users for inkjet machines potentially, have only a few notices. In this paper, it is focused on the processing of cellulose, especially, cotton fabrics from the aspect of a textile printing technician. The role is explained of each process: preparation, pretreatment, printing, steaming, washing and finishing in textile processing. It is very important to maintain the quality well because of the great influence on color depth and reproducibility rather than conventional printing. Turquoise dye, which represents a cyan color among the combination of CMYK, is one of the toughest dye to handle because of the slow fixation at steaming. In order to keep away from the difficulty, two processes are keys to success of pretreatment and steaming in textile inkjet printing.
Functional particles are currently applied in various fields of technology. Since the physical and chemical properties of particles generally depend on the particle sizes, high monodispersity of particle sizes is required to regulate the particle properties within a narrow range. Another importance of particle synthesis is the development of environmentally adaptable processes for the production. Focusing on recent research developments, this paper describes size control techniques for monodisperse particles and synthetic techniques for composite particles required for particle multi-functionalization. The topics described for the composite particles are spherical core/shell particles with a single-core and multi-cores, non-spherical core/shell particles, hollow particles, and the particles prepared via the synthesis of monodisperse silicon oil droplets. Current level of particle synthesis has attained high accuracy and multiformity in particle morphology control.
It is essential for paint manufacturers to ensure compliance for their products before starting design of them. Such compliance checks should be performed by all related persons in charge in order to avoid possible fatal oversights. Compliance check reviewing when, for example, amendments are made to existing regulations is also necessary.
Regulations critical to paint industries in Japan, USA and EU are briefly introduced in this paper.