Cheese can be classified into natural and processed cheese. Milk, with its proteins and fats amassed into solids, is used as a raw material in the production of natural cheese, which is then used as the starting material in the production of processed cheese. The available varieties of natural cheese are based on the type of raw milk, production conditions, and microorganisms used. The production of natural cheese is undertaken since olden days; however, using a scientific approach for this is relatively recent. In this article, we will explain the scientific mechanisms underlying the basic processes involved in the production of natural cheese.
Synthesis of new π-conjugated heteroaromatic oligomers, such as indole, carbazole, dibenzofuran and dibenzothiophene bridged by acetylene are described in this review. Moreover, their photophysical properties investigated by means of UV-vis/fluorescence spectroscopies and comparison with those of the parent compound or any structural isomers are discussed.
Hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNPs) are the solid-gas composite particle which consist of an air cavity surrounded by a silica shell. With this abnormal structure, HSNPs show superior properties compared to dense silica particles. For application of the properties, the HSNPs must be dispersed in the final production medium such as a film. In one interesting application, HSNPs can be applicated as anti-slip materials against sweat, and volleyballs coated with HSNPs were used as the official balls at the Beijing Olympics. In this paper, the synthesis method, dispersion technique for application and the application of HSNPs are described.
The color of automotive metallic finishes applied in a basecoat/clearcoat painting process is varied by spraying equipment and/or parameters, even when the same basecoat and clearcoat are used. This color variation results from the differences not only in the orientation, but also in the content and size of flakes in the basecoat film.
During spraying, the flakes are oriented parallel to the substrate surface by the basecoat droplet flow only when the droplet is large enough to penetrate the wet film and spread out on the substrate surface. During drying and baking, the flakes are oriented parallel by the shrinkage of the film thickness caused by the evaporation of volatiles after the film viscosity becomes high enough to prevent the disturbed flake movement by the evaporative convection etc..
The content and size of flakes in the basecoat film are varied by the nonuniformity of flake allotment to the droplets and the selective deposition of the droplets. Small droplets contain only fine flakes or no flakes, and cannot deposit on the substrate easily. Therefore, the deposition of small droplets, namely, the increase of transfer efficiency causes the decrease of both the content and size of flakes.
Coating films give “Appearance” and “Function” to substrates. We must use practical methods to evaluate coated film quality. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider the optimization of all steps in the process from painting through to drying of the finished film to develop paint formulations that can achieve the required targets.
This paper will introduce not only evaluation methods of coating films and paints, but also physical analysis methods, giving concrete examples.