In order to clarify the dispersion state of ultra-fine pigment particles in the process of making inks, Small-Angle-X-ray-Scattering (SAXS) and Ultra-Small-Angle-X-ray-Scattering (USAXS) analyses were performed at SPring-8, one of the largest facilities of synchrotron radiation. The samples of pigment ink dispersions were composed of ultra-fine pigment, dispersant, binder, and solvent. We found that the SAXS/USAXS profiles of inks, especially the presence or absence of shoulders in the profiles indicate the different dispersion states of the pigments. From the obtained data we deduce that to achieve higher dispersion stability of the pigment particles for higher-performance ink products, it is necessary not only to elaborately modify the pigment interface by optimizing the type and amount of the dispersant agents, but also to stabilize the inks by blending with appropriate amounts of binder.
Preparation of glycolether lignin from Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) woodmeal by acid-catalyzed solvolysis in 2-phenoxyethanol has been performed. The glycolether lignin had the hydroxyl content of 0.677 mmol/g and average molecular weight of 2.5×103. The glycolether lignin showed good solubility to various common organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, 2-butanone and chloroform. Crosslinked glycolether lignin, obtained by esterification with adipoyl chloride in acetone, showed thermal stability up to 230 °C.
At present, CO2 emissions reduction is a major social goal, and the fuel consumption regulations of automobiles in each country are becoming increasingly strict. In order to improve the fuel efficiency of automobiles, weight reduction is effective, and the need for lightweight materials is increasing more and more. There are high-tensile steel, CFRP, magnesium alloy, aluminum alloy, etc. as materials for weight reduction, among them, the application of aluminum materials excellent in the balance of weight reduction effect and cost has been rapidly increasing.
In this report, we introduce the properties required for aluminum materials for automobiles and material development corresponding to them, and then touch on surface treatment technology and bonding technology for automobile.
The methodology and instrumentation of the dispersion state of inks are introduced. In general, there are two points of view for characterization, namely dispersibility and dispersion stability.
In this paper, instruments in practical use are explained. In particular, as the practical inks are highly concentrated suspensions, acoustic spectroscopy and sedimentation analysis methods are emphasized as methods not requiring dilution.