When extracellular osmolarity exceeds intracellular osmolarity, cells initially shrink but then approach the original cell volume by so-called regulatory cell volume increase (RVI). RVI operates under physiological conditions so that impairment of RVI leads to immediate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In a cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells, extracellular hypertonicity induced non-selective cation currents (IHO currents) which transported mainly Na+ into cells to induce RVI as assessed with the patch-clamp method. Ion channels mediating these currents were Ca2+-impermeable and sensitive to flufenamic acid (FFA) and econazole but not to amiloride or ruthenium red. RT-PCR indicated that HeLa cells express transient receptor potential (TRP) C1, C6, M3, M4, M7, M8, V1 and V2 subunits which form non-selective cation channels. From these results, we speculated that TRPM4 may mediate IHO currents. Indeed, transduction of a dominant-negative TRPM4 subunit significantly inhibited IHO currents. TRPM4 channels became insensitive to hypertonic stimulus when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly buffered. Thus, extracellular hypertonicity activates TRPM4 channels through intracellular Ca2+ to induce RVI in HeLa cells. These results indicate that intra-uterus or -vaginal application of drugs blocking TRPM4 channels may cause antiproliferative/proapoptotic effects on cervical cancer.
We report a rare case of living renal transplantation surgery without monopolar cautery. The recipient was a 30-year-old woman with a chronic kidney disease, who had undergone a cochlear implant surgery because of being severely hard of hearing. The electrical current might have induced severe damage to the artificial ear, so the use of monopolar cautery was prohibited in such a patient with an artificial ear. The transplantation was performed using other energy-based surgical devices such as ultrasonic, bipolar and heat derived shears. The surgery was completed safely, and no serious adverse events have been observed. We consider that living renal transplantation without monopolar cautery may be undergone safely by using other energy-based surgical devices.
Mycobacterium kansasii (M.kansasii) is a causative agent of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM), and is the second most common cause of NTM after the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in Japan, accouting for 14.1% of cases. It is a highly virulent organism, and chemotherapy is known to be the only effective treatment for NTM. Men account for more than 80% of the cases, and many of them reportedly have no history of smoking or respiratory disease. Imaging studies have indicated that bronchitis is more common than cavitary lesions in women. However, with the number of patients with NTM increasing yearly, cases of young female patients with cavitary lesions have been reported. Recently, we also encountered two women in their twenties with M.kansasii infection presenting with cavitary lesions. A review of the literature shows that thin-walled cavitary lesions with fine-granular shadows are seen in the right lung apex of healthy women in their twenties with M.kansasii infection, which tends to be resistant to INH, but suggests that three-drug chemotherapy with INH, RFP, and EB may be expected to lead to remission.
A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of a soft mass in the left upper extremity. We diagnosed the mass as a venous aneurysm (VA) by physical examination. Ultrasound examination found continuous blood flow in the VA, and MR-angiography revealed small communicating vessels between the venous aneurysm and the brachial artery. We performed VA resection under general anesthesia and diagnosed VA with congenital arterio-venous malformation in the VA wall by pathological examination.